Sādhya yuga –prior to 31000 BC. Devas were called Yāma. 4 main classes-Sādhya, Mahārājika, Ābhāsvara, Tuṣita, like Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya, Śūdra. After glacial floods of 31000 BC, Svāyambhuva Manu, called human Brahmā re-started civilization with Vedic culture in 29102 BC. He is called Adam in Bible and was 26000 years before Kali yuga starting after Mahābhārata war as per Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa.
After a long gap, Kaśyapa (second Brahmā) re-started Vedic era. Asuras were supreme for 10 yugas = 3600 years.
King Pṛthu was supreme in about 17000 BC who re-organized cultivation and large scale mining. To share, mining & other products, there were 12 major wars between Deva & Asuras. To stop that, Kūrma incarnation of Viṣṇu suggested joint mining called Samudra-manthana. Still, wars continued. Varāha killed Hiraṇyākṣa of south America (Puṣkara dvīpa) in about 16500 BC. Narasimha killed Hiraṇyakaśipu of Lybya-Ezypt of same group called younger brother. His great grandson Bali returned 3 lokas-Russia, China, India-to Indra. Rāhu was not satisfied with this treaty & wars continued.
Kārttikeya in 15800 BC (north pole moved away from Abhijit, Mahābhārata, Vana parva 230/8-10) started Deva supremacy by capturing Krauncha Dvīpa (north America, land & main mountain range both are in shape of flying bird). This is indicated by Greek authors like Arian, Megasthenes that India was self sufficient in everything, so it never attacked any other country since last 15000 years (before Alexander attack in 326 BC).
Vaiavsvata Manu in 13902 BC started present Yuga system. Earlier system of Veda was Brahma sampradāya. His system was called Āditya sampradāya, later on revived by Yājñavalkya in about 4000 BC. During period of Yama Vaivasvata (of same tradition as Vaivasvata Manu, called younger brother), glacial floods started in 10000 BC.
After this second glacial flood, Ṛṣabha Deva started civilization in about 9500 BC, so he is called descendant of Svāyambhuva Manu who had done this after 31000 BC. Maya Asura revised Sūrya-siddhānta in 9233 BC. Ikṣvāku re-established empire of Vaivasvata Manu on 1-11-8576 BC, so he is called son of Manu, though there was gap of about 5350 years. His son Vikukṣi has been called Ukusi in Iraq whose Kish chronicles have been found there dated about 8500 BC.
Father Baccus, called Dionysus attacked India and killed king Bahu in 6777 BC. According to Megasthenese, 153 generations of Indian kings ruled from that time for 6451 years 3 months as per Indian count till Chandragupta-1 of Gupta period in 327 BC when Alexander had attacked in 326 BC. 15 years after Baccus attack, king Sagara chased Yavanas of Arab to Greece after which it was named Ionia (Yunan) as per Herodotus. Some went to Yunnan of China also. Some attackers were forced to keep goat like beard as punishment, which later became respectable in Islam.
Paraśurāma destroyed Haihaya & Talajangha who had supported Baccus attack. Haihaya king Sahasrārjuna was killed by his alliance of 14 tribes from Khas in Asam, Kalinga of Orissa & Kurd of Iraq. His era has been called 120 years of democracy by Megasthenes (21 republics called 21 times wiping out of Kṣatriyas). On his death in 6177 BC, Kalamba era started called Kollam in Kerala. Ruins of his undersea town Sopara (Śūrpāraka-in shape of Chute) are found 30 kms long off coast of Mangalore estimated about 8000 years old.
Rama was born on 11-2-4433 BC on Sunday in 24th Tretā and ruled for 31 years after exile for 14 years from age of 25. His 35th descendant Bṛhadbala was killed in Mahābhārata in 3139 BC. Yudhiṣṭhira was coronated on 17-12-3139 BC (Yudhiṣṭhira śaka). Bhīṣma died after 5 days when nort motion of sun started after 58 days on bed of arrows. After rule of 36 years 3 months, Kaliyuga started on 17-2-3102 BC. After 6 months 11 days, Jaya samvatsara started on 25-8-3102 BC when Yudhiṣṭhira went for Abhyudaya, so it is called Jayābhyudaya śaka. In Kali year 25, Yudhiṣṭhira died in Kashmir where Laukika era started in 3076 BC. After 60 years rule, Parīkṣita was killed in 3042 BC by Takṣaka Nāga. His son Janamejaya retaliated after 27 years and turned 2 towns into mass graves called Moin-jo-daro (place of dead) and Harappa (heap of bones). On repentance of mass deaths, he made 5 land grants on 27-11-3014 BC on occasion of solar eclipse at Puri.
After 7 generations, in time of Nicakṣu, Sarasvatī dried and his capital Hastinapur wiped out by Ganga. King of Kashi took Sanyāsa as 23rd Tīrthankara Pārśvanātha, when Jaina- Yudhiṣṭhira śaka started in 2634 BC.
Śiśunāga śaka (called Kauzad = snake in Burma) started after his death in 1954 BC. Nanda śaka (his coronation) was in 1634 BC. Naobonassir (Lavaṇāsura) attack from Assyria was defeated by Kharavel in 824 BC at Mathura-11 years of his rule. Semirami attack with 35 lakh army was repulsed by Mālava Gaṇa formed under Śūdraka (his śaka in 756 BC) with 4 Agnivamśī kings-Paramar, Pratihar, Chahman, Chalukya. Chahman king of Delhi wiped out Assyrian capital Nineve in 612 BC when the śaka used by Varahamihira, Brahmagupta started. Mālava Gaṇa lasted for 300 years as per Megasthenes till Śrīharṣa śaka of 456 BC.
Paramar king Vikramaditya of Ujjain started Vikrama samvat in 57 BC. His grandson started Śālivāhana śaka in 78 AD after repulsing attack by Turk, Parasi, Tatar & Chinese. Chedi śaka started in 248 AD. After end of later Guptas at Valabhi in Gujrat, Valabhi bhanga śaka started in 319 AD.
BY ARUN UPADHYAY.