Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Purandhar fort, पुरंदर किल्ला

Photo: Purandar fort:

Purandar fort (also called Purandhar fort) पुरंदर किल्ला (in Marathi) figures repeatedly in the rising of Shivaji against the Bijapur kingdom and the Mughals. Purandhar fort stands 4,472 ft. above the sea (1,387 m) in the Western Ghats, 20 miles southeast of Pune. It actually consists of two forts - Purandar and Vajragad (or Rudramal). The latter is the smaller of the two and is on the eastern side of the main fort. The village Purandar takes its name from this fort.

The earliest known mention of Purandar is in the Yadava era (11th century). The 1000yr old Narayaneshwar temple of Hemadpanthi architecture built by the Yadavas still exists in Narayanpur, the base village of Purandar. 

After the defeat of the Yadavas by Persian invaders, the territory fell in to the hands of these invaders who further fortified Purandar in 1350. During the early rule of the Bijapur and Ahmednagar kings, Purandar was among the forts directly under Government, and never entrusted to jagirdars (estate-holders).[2] Sometime under the Bedar kings (1347-1490) the fort was besieged several times. To prevent Purandar fort from falling, a man and a woman were buried alive under one of the fort bastions to appease its patron deity.[3] The king of Berar then ordered his minister a Esaji Naik Chive to bury a first born son and his wife into the foundation of the bastion. This was promptly done and after a further offering of gold and bricks. When the bastion was finished Esaji Naik was given possession of the fort and the father of the sacrificed boy was rewarded with two villages. This custom was also followed by Shivaji when he built his forts.

In 1596, when Bahudar Shah of Ahmednagar sultanate granted Maloji Bhosale(grandfather of Shivaji) Poona and Supa, the fort of Purandar was included as well. In 1646, a 19-year-old Shivaji in one of the first victories of his legendary career, established control in the fort. In 1665, it was besieged by the forces of Aurangzeb, under the command of Mirja Raja Jai Singh, a Rajput general, assisted by Diler Khan, an Afghan. The defense of Purandar by Murarbaji Deshpande of Mhar, the killedar (keeper of the fort) was obstinate and he lost his life in the struggle to retain the fort. Raja Shivaji daunted at the prospect of the fall of his grandfathers fort, signed a treaty (the first Treaty of Purandar) with Aurangzeb. Purandar fort along with Vajragad, Sinhgad and 22 other forts came under the Aurangzeb's control and Shivaji Raje became his jahagirdar (glorified tenant). This truce did not last long as Shivaji revolted against Aurangzeb and recaptured Purandar only five years later in 1670. Thereafter, Shivaji spent prolonged periods of time here. Sambhaji raje, Shivaji Maharaj's eldest son and successor was born at Purandar fort.[1][2]

Under the Peshwas, Purandar was a stronghold to which they retreated whenever Pune, their capital, was under attack. Likely because the fort commands a pass through the Sahyadri mountain range. In 1776, a treaty was signed between the British Government and the Maratha States(the second Treaty of Purandar). Its conditions were never fulfilled, being overruled by the subsequent Treaty of Salbai in 1782 between the Bombay Government and Raghunathrao, at the close of the First Anglo-Maratha War.[2]

In 1818, Purandar was invested by a British force under General Pritzler. On the 14th of March, a British garrison marched into Vajragad the smaller fort. As Vajragad commanded Purandar, the commandant had to accept terms and the British flag was hoisted at Purandar on the 16th March, 1818.

Wiki
Purandar fort (also called Purandhar fort) पुरंदर किल्ला (in Marathi) figures repeatedly in the rising of Shivaji against the Bijapur kingdom and the Mughals. Purandhar fort stands 4,472 ft. above the sea (1,387 m) in the We...stern Ghats, 20 miles southeast of Pune. It actually consists of two forts - Purandar and Vajragad (or Rudramal). The latter is the smaller of the two and is on the eastern side of the main fort. The village Purandar takes its name from this fort.

The earliest known mention of Purandar is in the Yadava era (11th century). The 1000yr old Narayaneshwar temple of Hemadpanthi architecture built by the Yadavas still exists in Narayanpur, the base village of Purandar.

After the defeat of the Yadavas by Persian invaders, the territory fell in to the hands of these invaders who further fortified Purandar in 1350. During the early rule of the Bijapur and Ahmednagar kings, Purandar was among the forts directly under Government, and never entrusted to jagirdars (estate-holders).[2] Sometime under the Bedar kings (1347-1490) the fort was besieged several times. To prevent Purandar fort from falling, a man and a woman were buried alive under one of the fort bastions to appease its patron deity.[3] The king of Berar then ordered his minister a Esaji Naik Chive to bury a first born son and his wife into the foundation of the bastion. This was promptly done and after a further offering of gold and bricks. When the bastion was finished Esaji Naik was given possession of the fort and the father of the sacrificed boy was rewarded with two villages. This custom was also followed by Shivaji when he built his forts.

In 1596, when Bahudar Shah of Ahmednagar sultanate granted Maloji Bhosale(grandfather of Shivaji) Poona and Supa, the fort of Purandar was included as well. In 1646, a 19-year-old Shivaji in one of the first victories of his legendary career, established control in the fort. In 1665, it was besieged by the forces of Aurangzeb, under the command of Mirja Raja Jai Singh, a Rajput general, assisted by Diler Khan, an Afghan. The defense of Purandar by Murarbaji Deshpande of Mhar, the killedar (keeper of the fort) was obstinate and he lost his life in the struggle to retain the fort. Raja Shivaji daunted at the prospect of the fall of his grandfathers fort, signed a treaty (the first Treaty of Purandar) with Aurangzeb. Purandar fort along with Vajragad, Sinhgad and 22 other forts came under the Aurangzeb's control and Shivaji Raje became his jahagirdar (glorified tenant). This truce did not last long as Shivaji revolted against Aurangzeb and recaptured Purandar only five years later in 1670. Thereafter, Shivaji spent prolonged periods of time here. Sambhaji raje, Shivaji Maharaj's eldest son and successor was born at Purandar fort.[1][2]

Under the Peshwas, Purandar was a stronghold to which they retreated whenever Pune, their capital, was under attack. Likely because the fort commands a pass through the Sahyadri mountain range. In 1776, a treaty was signed between the British Government and the Maratha States(the second Treaty of Purandar). Its conditions were never fulfilled, being overruled by the subsequent Treaty of Salbai in 1782 between the Bombay Government and Raghunathrao, at the close of the First Anglo-Maratha War.[2]

In 1818, Purandar was invested by a British force under General Pritzler. On the 14th of March, a British garrison marched into Vajragad the smaller fort. As Vajragad commanded Purandar, the commandant had to accept terms and the British flag was hoisted at Purandar on the 16th March, 1818.