Monday, January 25, 2016

चित्तौड़गढ़ का तीसरा जौहर और जयमल-पत्ता का बलिदान,Akbar's Expedition Against Chittodgadh and the Third Jauhar

----चित्तौड़गढ़ का तीसरा जौहर और जयमल-पत्ता का बलिदान----
राजपूत विरूद्ध मुग़ल युद्ध 1568 ईस्वी
पुरखों के शौर्य,रक्त और बलिदान को भुलाये कैसे???
पुरखो के शाका और जौहर को हम इतनी आसानी से नही भूल सकते।राजपूत योद्धा अपनी प्रजा के रक्षा करना जानते थे ,जीते जी एक पर भी आंच नही आने दी,कट गए मर मिटे इज्जत की खातिर जौहर की चिता में लाखो राजपूतानिया जिन्दा जल गई,लाखो राजपूत योद्धा कट गए, सिर कट गए धड़ लड़ते रहे ।
वक़्त 15 वी शताब्दी दिल्ली के मुग़ल बादशाह ने मेवाड़ चित्तौड़ पर आक्रमण की योजना की और खुद 60000 मुगलो की सेना लेकर मेवाड़ आया।उस वक़्त महाराणा उदय सिंह भी लोहा लेने को तैयार हुए अपने पूर्वज बाप्पा रावल राणा हमीर राणा कुम्भा राणा सांगा के मेवाड़ी वंसज तैयार हुए पर मेवाड़ के तत्कालीन ठाकुरो/उमरावो ने उदय सिंह जी को मेवाड़ हित में कहा की आप न लडे क्यों की आपको कुंभलगढ़ में सेना मजबूत करनी है ।अंत ना मानने पर भी उमरावो ठाकुरो ने उन्हें कुंभलगढ़ भेज दिया और फैसला किया मेड़ता के दूदा जी पोते वीरो के वीर शिरोमणि जयमल मेड़तिया को चित्तोड़ का सेनापति बना भार सोपने का और जयमल के साले जी पत्ता जी चुण्डावत को उनके साथ नियुक्त किया गया।
खबर मिलते ही जयमल जी और उनके भाई बन्धु प्रताप सिंह और दूसरे भाई भतीजे राठौड वीरो की तीर्थ स्थली चित्तोड़ की और निकल पड़े ।निकलते ही अजमेर के आगे मगरा क्षेत्र में उनका सामना हुआ वहा बसने वही रावत जाति के लूटेरो से!!!!!
भारी लाव लश्कर और जनाना के साथ जयमल जी को लूटेरो ने रोक दिया एक लूटरे ने सिटी बजायी देखते ही देखते एक पेड़ तीरो से भर गया सभी समझ चुके थे की वे लूटेरो से घिरे हुए है ।
तभी भाई प्रताप सिंह ने कहा की "अठे या वटे" जयमल जी ने कहा "वटे" तभी जनाना आदि ने सारे गहने कीमति सामान वही छोड़ दिया और आगे चल पड़े लूटेरो की समझ से ये बाहर था कि एक राजपूत सेना जो तलवारो भालो से सुसज्जित है वो बिना किसी विवाद और लडे इतनी आसानी से कैसे छोड़ जा सकते है।अभी जयमल की सेना अपने इष्ट नाथद्वारा में श्रीनाथ जी के दर्शन ही कर रही थी कि तभी लूटेरे फिर आ धमके और सरदार ने जयमल जी से कहा की ये "अटे और वटे" क्या है ????
तब वीर जयमल मेड़तिया ने कहा की यहाँ तुमसे धन के लिए लडे या वहा चित्तौड़ में तुर्को से ?
तभी लूटेरे सरदार की आँखों में आंसू आ गए और उसने जयमल जी के पैेरो में गिर कर माफ़ी मांगी और अपनों टुकड़ी को शामिल करने की बात कही पर जयमल जी ने कहा की तुम लूटपाठ छोड़ यहाँ मुगलो का सामना करो।अतः लूटेरे आधे रास्ते वीरो को छोड़ने आये और फिर लोट गए।
मेड़ता के वीर अब चित्तोड़ में प्रवेश कर गए और किले की प्रजा को सुरक्षित निकालने में जुटे ही थे कि तभी खबर मिली की मुग़ल सेना ने 10 किमी दूर किले के नीचे डेरा जमा दिया है। सभी 9 दरवाजे बंद किये गए 8000 राजपूत वीर वही किले में रहे।
मुगलो ने किले पर आक्रमण किया पर हर बार वो असफल हुये आखिर में मुगलो ने किले की दीवारो के निचे सुरंगे बनाई पर रात में राजपूत फिर उसे भर देते थे ।आखिर में किले के दरवाजो के पास दीवारे तोड़ी पर योद्धा उसे रात में फिर बना देते थे।ये जद्दोजहद 5 माह तक चलती रही पर किले के निचे मुगलो की लाशे बिछती गई।उस वक़्त मजदूरी इंतनी महगी हो गयी की एक बाल्टी मिट्टी लाने पर एक मुग़ल सैनिक को एक सोने का सिक्का दिया गया।वहाँ मिटटी सोने से अधिक महंगी हो गयी थी।
अब अकबर ने जयमल जी के पास अपना दूत भेजकर प्रलोभन दिया कि अगर मेरे अधीनता स्वीकार करे तो जयमल को उसके पुरखों का राज्य मेड़ता सहित पूरे मेवाड़ का भी राजा बना देगा।तब वीरवर सूर्यवंशी राजपूत गौरव राव जयमल राठौड़ मेड़तिया का उत्तर था-------
है गढ़ म्हारो म्है धणी,असुर फ़िर किम आण |
कुंच्यां जे चित्रकोट री दिधी मोहिं दीवाण ||
जयमल लिखे जबाब यूँ सुनिए अकबर शाह |
आण फिरै गढ़ उपरा पडियो धड पातशाह ||
अर्थात अकबर ने कहा जयमल मेड़तिया तू अपने प्राण चित्तोड और महाराणा के लिए क्यों लूटा रहा है ?
तू मेरा कब्ज़ा होने दे में तुझे तेरा मूल प्रदेश मेड़ता और मेवाड़ दोनों का राजा बना दूंगा ।
पर जयमल ने इस बात को नकार कर उत्तर दिया मै अपने स्वामी के साथ विश्वासघात नही कर सकता।
मेरे जीते जी तू अकबर तुर्क यहाँ प्रवेश नही कर सकता मुझे महाराणा यहाँ का सेनापति बनाकर गए है।
एक हरियाणवी रागिनी गायक ने भी जयमल के बारे में क्या खूब लिखा है कि जब अकबर के संधि प्रस्ताव को जयमल ठुकराकर अकबर को उसी के दूत के हाथों सन्देश भिजवाता है कि---
ए अकबर
"हम क्षत्री जात के ठाकुर, समझे न इंसाण तनै"
"रे तै हिजड़ा के गीत सुणे सै,देखे न बलवान तैने"।।
अब अकबर घबरा गया और उसने अजमेर शरीफ से दुवा मांगी कि अगर वो इस युद्ध में कामयाब हो गया तो वो अजमेर जियारत के लिए जरुर जाएगा।।।।।।।।।।।।।
एक दिन रात में जयमल जी किले की दिवार ठीक करवा रहे थे और अकबर की नजर उन पर पड़ गयी।तभी अकबर ने अपनी बन्दुक संग्राम से एक गोली चलाई जो जयमल के पैरो पर आ लगी और वो घायल हो गए।गोली का जहर शरीर में फैलने लगा।अब राजपूतो ने कोई चारा न देखकर जौहर और शाका का निर्णय लिया।
आखिर वो दिन आ ही गया 6 माह तक किले को मुग़ल भेद नही पाये और रसद सामग्री खाना आदि खतम हो चुकी था ।किले में आखिर में एक ऐसा निर्णय हुआ जिसका अंदाजा किसी को नही था और वो निर्णय था जौहर और शाका का और दिन था 23 फरवरी 1568!!!!!
चित्तौड़ किले में कुण्ड को साफ़ करवाया गया गंगाजल से पवित्र किया गया ।बाद में चन्दन की लकड़ी और नारियल से उसमे अग्नि लगायी गयी उसके बाद जो हुआ वो अपने आप में एक इतिहास था।
हजारों राजपूतानिया अपने अपनी पति के पाव छूकर और अंतिम दर्शन कर एक एक कर इज्जत कि खातिर आग में कूद पड़ी और सतीत्व को प्राप्त हो गयी ये जौहर नाम से जाना गया।
रात भर 8000 राजपूत योद्धा वहा बैठे रहे और सुबह होने का इन्तजार करने लगे ।सुबह के पहले पहर में सभी ने अग्नि की राख़ का तिलक किया और देवी पूजा के बाद सफ़ेद कुर्ते पजामे और कमर पर नारियल बांध तैयार हुए।
अब जौहर के बाद ये सभी भूखे शेर बन गए थे।
मुग़ल सेना चित्तोड किले में हलचल से पहले ही सकते में थी।उन्होंने रात में ही किले से अग्नि जलती देखकर समझ आ गया था कि जौहर चल रहा है और कल अंतिम युद्ध होगा।
सुबह होते ही एकाएक किले के दरवाजे खोले गए। जयमल जी के पाँव में चोट लगने की वजह से वो घोड़े पर बैठने में असमर्थ थे तो वो वीर कल्ला जी राठौड़ के कंधे पर बेठे।
युद्ध शुरू होते ही वीर योद्धाओ ने कत्ले आम मचा दिया अकबर दूर से ही सब देख रहा था।जयमल जी और कल्ला जी ने तलवारो का जोहर दिखाया और 2 पाव 4 हाथो से मारकाट करते गये उन्हें देख मुग़ल भागने लगी।
स्वयम अकबर भी यह दृश्य देखकर अपनी सुध बुध खो बैठा। उसने चतुर्भुज भगवांन का सुन रखा था।
"जयमल बड़ता जीवणे, पत्तो बाएं पास |
हिंदू चढिया हथियाँ चढियो जस आकास" ||
पत्ता जी प्रताप सिंह जी जयमल जी कल्ला जी आदि वीरो के हाथो भयंकर मार काट हुयी ।
सिर कटे धड़ लड़ते रहे ।
"सिर कटे धड़ लड़े रखा रजपूती शान "
दो दो मेला नित भरे, पूजे दो दो थोर॥
जयमल जी के एक वार से 2 - 2 मुग़ल तुर्क साथ कटते गए किले के पास बहने वाली गम्भीरी नदी भी लाल हो गयी। सिमित संसाधन होने के बाद भी राजपूती सेना मुगलो पर भारी पढ़ी।
युद्ध समाप्त हुआ कुल 48000 सैनिक मारे गए जिनमे से पुरे 8000 राजपूत वीरगति को गए तो बदले में 40000 मुग़लो को भी साथ ले गए ।
बचे तो सिर्फ अकबर के साथ 20000 मुग़ल बाद में अकबर किल्ले में गया वहा कुछ न मिला। तभी अकबर ने चित्तौड़ की शक्ति कुचलने के लिये वहाँ कत्लेआम का आदेश दिया और 30 हजार आम जनता को क्रूरता से मारा गया।यह कत्लेआम अकबर पर बहुत बड़ा धब्बा है।
अकबर जयमल जी और पत्ता जी की वीरता से प्रभावित हुआ और नरसंहार का कलंक धोने के लिये उसने उनकी अश्ववारुड मुर्तिया आगरा के किले के मुख द्वार पर लगवायी।
वही कल्ला जी घर घर लोकदेवता के रूप में पूजे गए मेवाड़ महाराणा से वीरता के बदले वीर जयमल मेड़तिया के वंशजो को बदनोर का ठिकाना मिला तो पत्ता जी चुण्डावत के वंशज को आमेट ठिकाना ।
वही प्रताप सिंह मेड़तिया के वंशज को घाणेराव ठिकाना दिया गया।
ये वही जयमल मेड़तिया है जिन्हीने एक ही झटके में हाथी की सिर काट दिया था
ये वही वीर जयमल जी है वो महाराणा प्रताप के सैनिक(अस्त्र शस्त्र) गुरु भी थे।
ये वही वीर है जो स्वामिभक्ति को अपनी जान से ज्यादा चाहा अकबर द्वारा मेवाड़ के राजा बनाए जाने के लालच पर भी नही झुके।
कर्नल जेम्स टोड राजस्थान के प्रत्येक राज्य में "थर्मोपल्ली" जैसे युद्ध और "लियोनिडास" जैसे योधा होनी की बात स्वीकार करते हैं ये जयमल पत्ता जैता कुंपा गोरा बादल जैसे सैंकड़ो वीरो के कारण है।
हिंदू,मुस्लमान,अंग्रेज,फ्रांसिस,जर्मन,पुर्तगाली आदि अनेक इतिहासकारों ने जयमल के अनुपम शौर्य का वर्णन किया है |
अबुल फजल,हर्बर्ट,सर टामस रो, के पादरी तथा बर्नियर जैसे प्रसिद्ध लेखकों ने जयमल के कृतित्व की अत्यन्त ही प्रसंशा की है |
जर्मन विद्वान काउंटनोआर ने अकबर पर जो पुस्तक लिखी उसमे जयमल को "Lion of Chittor" कहा |
नमन है ऐसे वीरो को।।।
refrence---
१-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittorgarh
2-http://www.historynet.com/battle-for-chitor-storming-the-la
==============================================
THIS ENGLISH ARTICLE WRITTEN BY KUNVAR VISHWAJEET SINGH SISODIYA JI,
===Akbar's Expedition Against Chittodgadh and the Third Jauhar And Saka===
Date:-23 October 1567 - 23 February 1568
Casualties:-
1)Attacking Army:-29,336 to 39,500(Based On Several Estimates and Calculations)
2)Defending Army:-8000 Rajputs Warriors and ~30000 Civilians
=================
In October 1567, the Mughal forces of approximately 5,000 men led by Akbar surrounded and besieged 8,000 Hindu Rajputs in Chittorgarh Fort and within a few months Akbar's ranks expanded to over 70,000 men and possibly more than 80,000 troops during the late phases of the siege, which ended in a victory of the Mughals and the dreadful Jauhar and Saka at the defending side followed by massacre of civilians.
Strength:-
1)Attacking Army:-
80,000 men
80 cannons
95 swivel guns
800 matchlocks
250 war elephants
2)Defending Army:-
8,000 men+1000 Pathan Gunners probably from Kalki or Buxar commanded by Pathan Ismail Khan.
==================
The Siege of Chittorgarh began when Akbar and his personal Mughal force of 5,000 soldiers surrounded a 6 mile territory around Chittorgarh Fort. On 23 October 1567, Akbar arrived and setup encampments he raised green flags of the Mughal Empire, according to Hindu accounts he also brought large Islamic banners and emblems (Islamic flags were commonly used by the Mughal army). His personal presence in the battlefield was a message for the Rajput flanks inside the fort that the siege was not a temporal affair. The next day Akbar unleashed his powerful cannons, but within a few days of the siege it was evident that his mortars needed higher elevation. Akbar then ordered his men to build the Mohur Margi (Mohur Hill, also known as: Coin Hill). Akbar also displayed heads of dead villagers to incite the Rajputs to come out.
After an arduous siege Akbar ordered his men to lift baskets of earth during both day and night, in order to create a hill right in front of the fort by which the Mughal cannons could be placed. When the hill was completed Akbar placed his cannons and mortars near its tip, but the cannons were too slow to breach the thick stone walls of the Fort.
Akbar believed that the only way to achieve victory and break the deadlock was to blow a hole underneath Chittorgarh Fort. Akbar then organized his sappers to build two sabat's and to plant two separate mines under the heavy stone walls of the fortress of Chittor. More than 5,000 Mughals then dug their way through a secret sabat(A tunnel like structured corridor covered by animal hide) that neared the gates of the fort, but one of the mines exploded prematurely during a military assault killing about a hundred Mughal sowars. The casualties on the Mughal side had risen to almost 200 men a day due to Rajput muskets and archers.
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Accompanied by his courtiers and surveyors, Akbar made a reconnaissance of his target and ordered batteries to be set up at various strategic points around the fort. It took about a month for the whole circumference of the fort to be invested.
There were three principal batteries, one of which was Akbar’s, located opposite the Lakhuta gate in the north. The second battery, under Shujaat Khan and other officers, and the third, under Asaf Khan and other officers, were emplaced at unspecified locations. Meanwhile, Akbar sent his officers to devastate the rana‘s territory, hoping to find Udai Singh in the process, but they found no trace of the rana.
The opening phase of battle began when some overzealous Mogul troops launched a reckless direct assault upon the fort. Not surprisingly, the Moguls’ arrows and bullets glanced off the surface of the walls and battlements, whereas those the garrison discharged exacted a heavy toll on them.
After that minor debacle, Akbar decided that strategic planning rather than reckless courage was what was needed if the fortress was to be taken. Accordingly, the emperor adopted a two-pronged strategy. One entailed mining the walls of the fort in front of the royal battery, whereupon a party of selected Mogul troops would rush into the fort as soon as the breach was made. While the sappers dug mines under the walls, stonemasons opened the way by removing obstacles with their iron tools.
The other strategy called for the construction of sabats, or covered passageways, an ingenious siege contrivance that was peculiar to India. A sabat was a sinuous sheltered passageway that was constructed out of gunshot range, with earthen walls on both sides and a roof of planks strongly fastened together and covered with rawhide. When a breach was made by mines, troops would rush in under the cover of the sabat. Akbar ordered the construction of two sabats: one to be commenced from the royal battery and the other to be built in front of Shujaat Khan’s position.
At the same time, in the emperor’s presence, an exceptionally large mortar was cast to demolish the walls of the fort. When the defenders became aware of this and saw that the Moguls were making daily progress toward the destruction of the fort, they sent out two representatives to Akbar to bargain for peace, offering to become subjects of his court and to send an annual tribute. Several Mogul officers advised him to accept the offer, but Akbar was adamant: Nothing short of the rana surrendering in person would persuade him to lift the siege. As they were unwilling–or perhaps unable–to deliver the rana, the Rajputs had no choice but to continue the defense of their fort with renewed fervor.
While the sabat in front of the royal battery was being constructed, artillerymen and marksmen inside the fort kept up such a fusillade that about 200 Mogul laborers were killed daily, even though they protected themselves with rawhide shields. The corpses were buried in the walls of the sabat. But the workers were kept going by lavish gifts of gold and silver coins from the emperor–the amount of which was calculated according to the number of containers of earth added to the sabat. The sabat opposite Akbar’s position was soon completed near the fort. It was reported to be so extensive that 10 horsemen abreast could ride along it and so high that an elephant rider with his spear in his hand could pass under it.
At the same time, two mines close to each other were brought to the wall of the fort and filled with large quantities of gunpowder. A party of fully armed and accoutered Mogul soldiers, noted for their bravery, stationed themselves near the wall, ready to rush in when it was breached. On December 17, the gunpowder of both mines was set to explode at the same time. One part of the bastion was blown up, inflicting heavy casualties on the defenders. Unknown to the Moguls, however, only one mine had exploded. When the soldiers rushed toward the large breach and
and were about to enter, the second mine exploded (apparently, the match used to ignite the gunpowder of the mine that exploded first had been shorter than the other match, so the mines failed to discharge simultaneously).
Moguls and Rajputs alike, battling in the breach, were hurled into the air together, while others were crushed by falling debris. The blast was so powerful that limbs and stones were hurled a great distance from the fort. Mogul reinforcements and Rajput troops then engaged in a brief skirmish until the Rajputs succeeded in quickly repairing the demolished part of the wall. About 500 Mogul soldiers, including a significant number of noteworthy men, were killed, while a large number of Rajputs also perished. On the same day, another ill-timed mine exploded in front of Asaf Khan’s battery and claimed 30 more lives.
Akbar viewed these botched undertakings as temporary setbacks that should serve to inspire even greater exertion and resolve on the part of the Moguls. To ensure that the assault on the fort would continue unabated, he ordered the construction of the sabat in front of Shujatt Khan’s battery to be speeded up.
The emperor also frequently visited the sabat in his sector and fired at the garrison from loopholes in the sabat. One day, Akbar saw that some of his men were admiring the marksmanship of one of the musketeers of the fort when, at that very moment, a shot from that marksman hit Jalal Khan, one of Akbar’s attendants. Akbar was reported to have said to his injured attendant, Jalal Khan, that marksman does not show himself; if he would do so, I’d avenge you. Although he could not see the marksman, Akbar took aim at the barrel of the musket that projected from a loophole. He fired but could not determine whether his shot had found its mark. It was only later that Akbar learned that his shot had indeed killed the sharpshooter, who was identified as Ismail, head of the musketeers.
Akbar proved to be quite a marksman himself, killing many noted members of the garrison. But the emperor also came close to losing his own life on a few occasions. Once, a large cannonball that fell near Akbar killed 20 soldiers but left him unscathed. On another occasion, a soldier standing near Akbar was hit by a bullet, and the emperor was saved from the same round only by his coat of mail.
When the second sabat was completed, the Mogul forces prepared to launch a full-scale assault on the fort. The Mogul troops went about their operations with such vigor and intensity that for two nights and a day they had neither food nor sleep, inspired by the personal example of Akbar, who was supervising the operations and keeping up a fusillade upon the garrison from the sabat. Special quarters had been erected for Akbar on top of the sabat, and the emperor stayed there during this crucial period.
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Abu Fazl's and Amarkavya Vanshawali Statement on the Blast of the mines using Gun Powder:-
"शब्दों महानेव बभूव पञ्च क्रोशाविधि(वधि)स्थाय¬ि जने: श्रुताश्व"(अमरकाव्य वंशावली,)
"50 kos,Pinjah Karva bestar rasid"
(Abu Fazl's Akbarnama(Persian Text,Vol II,Pg 400 and Pg 227)).
अमरकाव्य वंशावली limits the noise of the explosion to 5 kos whereas Fazl mentions 50 kos.
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As the Siege of Chittorgarh commenced a massive Mughal Army of nearly 60,000 gathered for battle and in this situation, Akbar had prayed for help for achieving victory and vowed to visit the tomb of the Sufi Khwaja at Ajmer if he was victorious. As the bombardment and the continuous assaults on Chittorgarh Fort continued, during one particular assault it is believed that a shot from Akbar's own matchlock wounded or killed the commander of the already demoralized Rajputs. It was only when almost all the Rajput women committed Jauhar (self immolation of women) did he Mughals realize that the condition inside the fort was now out of control and the total victory was within grasp.
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On the night of February 22, the Moguls attacked the fort from all sides and created several breaches in the walls. The Rajput warriors put up a stubborn resistance. At one point in the fighting, Prince Patta’s mother commanded Patta to don the saffron robe, which would indicate his desire to die for his gods and his country. She also armed his young bride with a lance and accompanied her down the rock. The defenders of Chitor saw mother and daughter-in-law die heroically, fighting side by side.
The Moguls had destroyed a large part of the wall at the end of the sabat that faced the royal battery. The defenders collected such combustible materials as muslin, wood, cotton and oil to fill the breach, intending to set fire to the heap when the Mogul troops approached to prevent them from entering the fort.
Akbar was in a vantage point inside a specially made gallery on top of the sabat at the time, and he saw a man wearing a chieftain’s cuirass directing the proceedings at the breach. The emperor took out a matchlock he had christened Sangram (Akbar was said to have killed a few thousand birds and animals with this gun during his hunting trips). He then fired at the Rajput chief, but no one could be certain whether the chieftain had been hit.
An hour had passed when Akbar received reports that the Rajputs had inexplicably abandoned their defenses. At about that time, fire broke out in several places in the fort. Akbar’s Hindu adviser, Raja Bhagwan Das, told the Mogul emperor that the Rajputs must be performing their custom of johar.
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=====Account Of Jauhar From Veer Vinod=====
"रावत पत्ता अपनी माँ सज्जन्बाई सोंनगरी और ठकुरानियो में से सामंतसी की बेटी जीवाबाई सोलंकिनी,सहसमल्ल की बेटी मदालसाबाई कच्छवाही ,इसरदास की बेटी भागवती बाई चहुवान,पद्मावती बाई झाली,रतनबाई राठोड,बालेसाबाई चहुवान,परमार डूंगरसी की बेटी बाग़डेची आसाबाई,वगैरह और दो बेटे व् पांच बेटियाँ आदि सबको आगमे जलाकर,तय्यार हो आया."(Veer Vinod,मोतीलाल बनारसीदास,chapter named 'बादशाह अकबर का चित्तोड़ लेना',Pg-80)
the jauhar were carried out at THREE different havelies: those of चुण्डावत पत्ता , साहिबखान चौहान, & ईसरदास चौहान ( may be also at जयमल्ल हवेली) led by Senior most thakurani of the haveli. Some are believed to have preferred जल समाधी । one estimate puts the figure at 300 more than that seem to be axeggaration.
Patta had 9 wives 5 daughters & 3 sons. His mother Sajjan bai Songari, wife Jivabai Solanki, & sister died on battle field fighting .
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The fortress of Chittor finally fell on February 1568 after a siege of four months when it was stormed by the Mughal forces. Akbar himself ordered two armored elephants" and 250 sowars to enter through two narrow breaches on the northern wall of the fort. Instead of surrendering to the Mughals the Rajputs chose to worship the sun one last time and fight to the death. This was common practise among the Rajputs also known as saka. Akbar then ordered the victorious Mughal forces to massacre the 30,000 civilian inhabitants of Chittorgarh Fort to compensate the soldiers killed in the war by the brave and talented Rajput soldiers.
Akbar then ordered the heads of his enemies to be displayed upon towers erected throughout the region, in order to demonstrate his authority and his victory over the Chittorgarh.(smith,2¬002,pg 342).
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Some Points to be noted
1)Akbar Shot Jaimal With his gun named "संग्राम."
2) The Ist Mughal War Elephant - Madhukar combats with Isar Das Chauhan:
A wonderful thing which happened that time, was that the Chauhan chief - Aissar Das Chauhan (or, Isar Das Chauhan) , who was one of the distinguished brave men of the fort, saw the elephant Madhukar and asked its name. When they told him he, in a moment, with daring rashness, seized his tusk with one hand, and struck with his dagger with the other and said, “Be good enough to convey my respects to your world-adorning appreciator of merit.”
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Abu'l Fazl describes a"wonderful thing" (as he says) - which was a daring attack by Isar Das Chauhan on one of the Mughal elephants Madhukar. Isar Das asked the name of the elephant before seizing its tusk with one hand and stabbing it with his dagger in the other hand. Isar Das then coolly asked the elephant's commander to convey his (Isar Das') 'wishes' to Akbar ("world adorning appreciator of merit"). It is interesting to observe that even Fazl was forced to admire some of the courageous acts of the Rajputs, which were beyond imagination.
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The IInd Mughal War Elephant - Jangia:
The elephant Jangia displayed great deeds. One of them was that a Rajput ran and struck his trunk with his sword and cut it off. Though his trunk was severed, which makes life difficult, it made wonderful conflicts before it died. It had killed 30 distinguished men before it was wounded, and it slew 15 afterwards. The elephant Madhukar also displayed wonderful deeds.
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Here Fazl described one of Akbar's favorite Mughal elephants, "Jangia - the warrior", who killed 45 distinguished Rajputs before dying , despite its trunk being cut off by a sword!!
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The IIIrd Mughal War Elephant - Kadira:
A wonderful thing was that the elephant Kadira ran away inside the fort on account of the noise and tumult, driving before it a number of doomed men who were coming to the breach. The lane was narrow, and it trampled and scattered them all. It was by the Divine aid that such a great boon was conferred. Aitamad Khan, who was riding on the elephant, was wounded, and died of his wounds a few days afterwards.
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Description of another Mughal war elephant named Kadira. In Arabic, Kadira means - "the powerful". This elephant was disturbed by the battle sounds and ran helter-skelter towards a narrow lane and trampled many of the Rajput soldiers who were going to repair a breach in the fort walls. Abu'l Fazl calls this rampage by the elephant a "divine aid" and a "great boon".
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The IVth Mughal War Elephant - Sabdiliya:
The Shahinshah used to tell me that - " At this time, he was standing on the wall of the fort and contemplating the Divine aids. The elephant Sabdiliya came inside the fort and was engaged in casting down and killing the Rajputs.
A Rajput ran at him and struck it with his sword inflicting a slight wound. The elephant, however, did not regard it and seized him with its trunk.
Just then another Rajput came in front of him and Sabdiliya turned to him while the first man escaped from his grasp and again daringly attacked him, but Sabdiliya behaved magnificently."}
Description of another Mughal war elephant named Sabdiliya. This name means - the beautiful (perhaps the charming killer) , who was throwing away and killing the Rajputs. The incident mentioned here relates to the story of this elephant's fight with two Rajputs. Akbar was watching this encounter standing on the wall of the fort.
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==========Commanders¬ on Both Sides===========
Defending Army:-
1)Rao Medtiya Jaimal Singh Rathore(Kiledar)
2)Rawat Fateh Singh Chundawat/¬Sisodiya(Head Of The Infantry)
3)Isardas Chauhan(Head Of the Archery Division)
4)Sahib Khan Chauhan(Another Infantry Division)
5)Pathan Ismail Khan(Gunner's/¬Leader of 1000 Pathan Gunner's )
Attacking Army:-
1)Akbar
2)Abdullah Khan
3)Khwaja Abdul Majid
4)Ghazi Khan
5)Mehtar Khan
6)Munim Khan
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Sources:-
1)Muntakhab Ut Tawarikh
2)Akbarnama
3)Tarikh I Akbari
4)Amar Vansh Varnan
5)Oxford History Of India-V.A Smith
6)Amarkavya Vanshawali
7)Mewar and Mughal Emperor'-G.N Sharma
8)Mewar ke Maharana aur shahanshah Akbar-R.S Bhatt
9)Veer Vinod
10)Rajputane ka Itihas,Ojha
11)Rajputane ka Itihas,Gahlot
sanjay dwivedy