Monday, July 27, 2015

Vedic period and kings

Vedic people were not primitive. They were more civilized than any other race of that period. The rules and regulations stipulated for the king and the duties and prerogatives assigned to the king show that they are highly organised and very much advanced in civilization.

It is amazing to see all the important Departments or Ministries were in place during the Vedic time.

Ministries: Grhapati, Vanaspati, Pasupati, Dharmapati, Brhaspati

Ministers : Savita, Agni, Soma, Brahaspati, Indra, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna 

Coronation and Consecration

The rites and rituals connected with the Coronation and Consecration ceremony are described in the Satapata Brahmana (5-3, 5-4). On the first day of the five day ceremony, offerings are made to eight deities-

Savita, Agni, Soma, Brahaspati, Indra, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna

These eight Gods are called ‘Devasus’ or Divine Quickeners’ and each has an epithet of his own.

While offering the oblations, each is invoked along with his epithet which bespeaks one or other aspect of royal prerogatives, duties and functions.

Thus Savita is invoked as Satyaprasava for true impulse or righteous energy of the king. ( I will compare it to the modern Ministry of External Affairs and Prime Minister’s Office)

Agni as Grhapati for mastery of the household( Ministry of Human Resources)

Soma as Vanaspati for the protection of forests and agriculture (Ministry of Agriculture and Forests)

Brhaspati Vak for power of speech ( Ministry of Information and Broadcasting)

Indra as Jyeshta for supremacy or predominance in matters of administration (Ministry of Home Affairs)

Rudra as Pasupati for protection of cattle,(Ministry of Animal Husbandry)

Mitra as Satya for truth,(Ministry of Moral Education)

And lastly offering to Varuna and moral governor as Dharmapati for upholding Dharma or Law. The last epithet viz, that of Varuna makes the king upholder of law or one who enforces law and order. (Ministry of Law and Order)

Thus each epithet is applied with an eye to each prerogative or duty of the king-designate. 

Eight Ministers for Tamil Kings

Tamil kings who ruled in the southern part of India two thousand years ago also had Eight Advisers. The council was called ‘EnPerayam.’ It consisted of

Chief of Accounts

Chief of Executive officials

Chief of Treasury officials

Chief of Palace guards

Leading citizens representatives

Chief of Infantry

Chief of Elephantry

Chief of the Cavalry

Shivaji’s Eight Ministers

Ashta Pradhan of Veera Shivaji

Shivaji who was coronated in 1674 had Eight Ministers to run the country. The council was called Ashta Pradhan.

Peshwa: Prime Minister

Amatya: Minister in charge of Financial matters

Sacheev: Chief of Administration

Mantri: Home Minister

Sumant: Foreign Minister

Senapati: Commander in Chief, Defence Minister

Nyayadish: Law Minister/ Chief Justice

Panditrao: Minister in charge of Religious Affairs 

Council of Eight Poets: Ashta Diggajas

Ancient King Vikramaditya had a Council of Nine Scholars known as Navaratnas (Nine Gems). Vijayanagara kings had a group of Eight Poets/scholars knows as Ashta Diggajas ( Eight Elephants in 8 cardinal points). They were very popular because of their poetical works. The eight poets were Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayagari Mallana, Pingali Surana,Tenali Ramakrishna, Dhurjati Ayyalaraju, Ramaraja Bhushandu, Rama Bhadrudu.

Of the eight poets, Tenali Ramakrishna was the most famous person. He was a great poet and a jester. His anecdotes are known to every child of South India.

Vijayanagara Emperor Krishna Devaraya who ruled between 1509 and 1529 AD had these eight poets. He himself was a great poet. 

Looking at these councils, one may conclude that the ancient practice of having EIGHT COUNCILLORS was followed till recent times.

Democratic Election:- First King Soma

The first king elected democratically on earth was a Vedic king named SOMA.

As to the origin of kingship or institution of monarchy the Aitareya Brahmana recounts the following anecdote. Once Gods were defeated by the Asuras (demons) in every direction. At that time there was no king among Gods. Brooding over the cause of their signal defeat at the hands of the Asuras, thus said the Gods—Because we are without a king they have been able to defeat us;we shall ELECT a king.’ All consented unanimously. They ELECTED god Soma as their king and conquered all the directions guided by King Soma. This passage proves the emergence of kingship by ELECTION at the time of emergency or national calamity. Naturally the first king had to be elected whether in heaven or earth. Later hereditary kingship was followed

Vedic people were not primitive. They were more civilized than any other race of that period. The rules and regulations stipulated for the king and the duties and prerogatives assigned to the king show that they are highly organised and very much advanced in civilization. It is amazing to see all the important Departments or Ministries were in place during the Vedic time. Ministries: Grhapati, Vanaspati, Pasupati, Dharmapati, Brhaspati Ministers : Savita, Agni, Soma, Brahaspati, Indra, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna Coronation and Consecration The rites and rituals connected with the Coronation and Consecration ceremony are described in the Satapata Brahmana (5-3, 5-4). On the first day of the five day ceremony, offerings are made to eight deities- Savita, Agni, Soma, Brahaspati, Indra, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna These eight Gods are called ‘Devasus’ or Divine Quickeners’ and each has an epithet of his own. While offering the oblations, each is invoked along with his epithet which bespeaks one or other aspect of royal prerogatives, duties and functions. Thus Savita is invoked as Satyaprasava for true impulse or righteous energy of the king. ( I will compare it to the modern Ministry of External Affairs and Prime Minister’s Office) Agni as Grhapati for mastery of the household( Ministry of Human Resources) Soma as Vanaspati for the protection of forests and agriculture (Ministry of Agriculture and Forests) Brhaspati Vak for power of speech ( Ministry of Information and Broadcasting) Indra as Jyeshta for supremacy or predominance in matters of administration (Ministry of Home Affairs) Rudra as Pasupati for protection of cattle,(Ministry of Animal Husbandry) Mitra as Satya for truth,(Ministry of Moral Education) And lastly offering to Varuna and moral governor as Dharmapati for upholding Dharma or Law. The last epithet viz, that of Varuna makes the king upholder of law or one who enforces law and order. (Ministry of Law and Order) Thus each epithet is applied with an eye to each prerogative or duty of the king-designate. Eight Ministers for Tamil Kings Tamil kings who ruled in the southern part of India two thousand years ago also had Eight Advisers. The council was called ‘EnPerayam.’ It consisted of Chief of Accounts Chief of Executive officials Chief of Treasury officials Chief of Palace guards Leading citizens representatives Chief of Infantry Chief of Elephantry Chief of the Cavalry Shivaji’s Eight Ministers Ashta Pradhan of Veera Shivaji Shivaji who was coronated in 1674 had Eight Ministers to run the country. The council was called Ashta Pradhan. Peshwa: Prime Minister Amatya: Minister in charge of Financial matters Sacheev: Chief of Administration Mantri: Home Minister Sumant: Foreign Minister Senapati: Commander in Chief, Defence Minister Nyayadish: Law Minister/ Chief Justice Panditrao: Minister in charge of Religious Affairs Council of Eight Poets: Ashta Diggajas Ancient King Vikramaditya had a Council of Nine Scholars known as Navaratnas (Nine Gems). Vijayanagara kings had a group of Eight Poets/scholars knows as Ashta Diggajas ( Eight Elephants in 8 cardinal points). They were very popular because of their poetical works. The eight poets were Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayagari Mallana, Pingali Surana,Tenali Ramakrishna, Dhurjati Ayyalaraju, Ramaraja Bhushandu, Rama Bhadrudu. Of the eight poets, Tenali Ramakrishna was the most famous person. He was a great poet and a jester. His anecdotes are known to every child of South India. Vijayanagara Emperor Krishna Devaraya who ruled between 1509 and 1529 AD had these eight poets. He himself was a great poet. Looking at these councils, one may conclude that the ancient practice of having EIGHT COUNCILLORS was followed till recent times. Democratic Election:- First King Soma The first king elected democratically on earth was a Vedic king named SOMA. As to the origin of kingship or institution of monarchy the Aitareya Brahmana recounts the following anecdote. Once Gods were defeated by the Asuras (demons) in every direction. At that time there was no king among Gods. Brooding over the cause of their signal defeat at the hands of the Asuras, thus said the Gods—Because we are without a king they have been able to defeat us;we shall ELECT a king.’ All consented unanimously. They ELECTED god Soma as their king and conquered all the directions guided by King Soma. This passage proves the emergence of kingship by ELECTION at the time of emergency or national calamity. Naturally the first king had to be elected whether in heaven or earth. Later hereditary kingship was followed