Monday, August 31, 2015
Tuesday, August 25, 2015
The truth may be finally emerging about the "Gospel of Jesus's Wife," a highly controversial papyrus suggesting that Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene. Evidence started coming out when Harvard University professor Karen King reported her discovery of the papyrus in September 2012. Written in Coptic (an Egyptian language), the papyrus fragment contains a translated line that reads, "Jesus said to them, 'My wife …'" and also refers to a "Mary," possibly Mary Magdalene.
Analysis of the papyrus, as per in the Harvard Theological Review journal, suggested the papyrus is 1,200 years while the ink is of a type that could have been created at that time.
It's authenticity is being retested at Columbia University. Initial tests published by the Columbia University team in 2014 indicated the ink could have been made in ancient times.
gospel of jesuss's wife
gospel of jesus's wife
Tuesday, August 18, 2015
Fall of last king of Afganistan-King Dahir by his own Buddhist Minister -Soft Policy of pseudosecularism wiped out Hinduism
|Raja Dahir of Sindh|
Dahir was last Hindu King of Afghanistan, who was defeated by help of a few Hindus king who helped Md Bin Qasim against Dahir and another BUDHIST MONK guided all nook and croony of the fort. The Monk wanted after defeat of Dahir BUDHISM should Be the main religion of Sindh. King Dahir was a lenient king ,Pseudo secular, everyone was free to follow ones religion even Muslim Merchants were allowed to live on seaside and make their mosques.
Buddhist betrayed King Dahir. Buddhist dreamed that they would be able to convert Muhammad bin qasim to Buddhism. Qasim slaughtered Buddhist in masses giving them appropriate lesson.
|Hindu Girls being sold in Slave Markets of Bagdad|
In this way unfavourable anti-Hindu youth entered the western boundary of Bharat. In these adverse circumstances, our good qualities worked against us as they turned out to be our failings.’ – Prof. S. G. Shevde (Bharatiya Sanskruti, Page Nos. 35 & 36)
Story has heroism and turn here as daughters of King Dahir did exceptional Bravery-
Salutation to daughters of King Dahir who avenged the insulting defeat of Sindh by killing Mohammad Bin Qasim !:
King Dahir had two daughters, Suryadevi and Parimaladevi who were sent to Baghdad as a gift for the Khalif. Our culture is one which treats a woman as a mother and here was another culture, which sent girls to their Dharma Guru for appeasement and enjoyment, which was a disgrace to mankind ! But both daughters of Dahir were very brave. They gained the confidence of the Khalif and he began to trust them. As they were given as gifts to Khalif, they were unable to prevent physical violation of their bodies but just see what they did do! They sent a letter to Mohammad Bin Qasim’s generals bearing the stamp and signature of the Khalif. The letter contained an order – ‘Put Mohammad in a leather bag, seal the bag and send it here’. The order was from the Khalif. The generals followed the order word to word; they put Mohammad alive in a letter bag, sealed the bag and sent it to Baghdad on a ship. When the ship reached Baghdad after 10-12 days, Mohammad Bin Qasim’s corpse had decayed to such an extent that worms had begun to devour the corpse. The decaying smell was unbearable.
The Khalif investigated as to ‘Why was he sent to him like this?’ The two girls then told the Khalif, “We sent a letter bearing your signature and stamp. We have taken revenge on the demon who inflicted untold misery in our kingdom. We have done this. We feel proud of what we have done. We have fulfilled our national duty. We are ready to face any consequences for this action.”
An enraged Khalifa tied the hair of the two girls to the tails of horses and made the horses run throughout Baghdad. The girls were being kicked by the horses and their bodies were being stripped of its skin in the process. Their hair was being pulled and their heads were dashing against the knees of horses. Except for the bloodied heads, both bodies were stripped and cut into pieces and were being dropped on the road. But the two girls, who were proud of having avenged the insult to their kingdom, did not have a single tear in their eyes as they embraced martyrdom.
(When Bharat gained independence, statues of these two girls should have been erected on the Sindh border.)’
– Prof. S. G. Shevde
Sunday, August 16, 2015
Hari Singh Nalwa ― Champion of the Khalsaji, How Pashtuns came to wear the Pathani suite a feminine apparel of the Punjabi women folkIn accordance with the teaching of their Guru, the Sikhs did not attack the defenceless or the weak. This included children, women, mendicants and the elderly. Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa advised the Pathans that one way they could escape the wrath of an infuriated Sikh was to dress as a woman. In the Punjab, the shalwar kameez is feminine apparel.
The shalwar was a loose trouser with a stiff border at the ankle, while the kameez was a loose shirt falling to the knees. This dress came to popularly be known as the ‘Punjabi suit’ in India. In Pakistan and Afghanistan, men still wear its variant — the ‘Pathan suit’.
Milkha Singh of Gurdwara Darshani Deohri Amritsar, first narrated this story to the author. Many others corroborated it since.
(Source: Nalwa, V. 2009. Hari Singh Nalwa - The Champion of Khalsaji New Delhi: Manohar, p. 264)
The twenty-first century, the Wali of Swat confirmed that the above was indeed a fact:
The following is the gist of an open letter written by Miangul Aurangzeb, the present Wali of Swat, to the Taliban when the Taliban were preaching and enforcing strict dress and conduct codes for the women in the areas that fell under their control.
"At the outset I want to record that you all must love me very much as you have decided not to take over my property in Swat unlike those you have taken over of other landed families. I am therefore emboldened to believe that I have the privilege of sharing some historical facts for you to know about and I urge you to absorb the same before you continue your campaign of moral policing, especially when it comes to the manner of dressing and code of conduct for women.
The Sikh army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, under the leadership of Hari Singh Nalwa came to the Frontier in the 1820's and swiftly conquered our ancestors. It is the only time in recorded history that our people were ruled over by foreigners. The locals were so utterly terrified of the Sikh army that they used to hide every time the Sikhs came into view. Those that decided to resist were met with ruthlessness. During this time, the word was spread around that the Sikhs did not harm elderly people, women and children and that the local men who did not wish to earn wrath of the Sikhs should wear the garb of Punjabi women, which was the Salwar-Kameez. At that time in our history both men and women alike, wore only a single-robe garment (similar to that worn by the Arabs) and the Sikhs would not harm any man either when wearing the Salwar-Kameez.
So you see, our men happily adopted the garb of Punjabi women since they were too terrified to stand up and they have adopted the garb as being theirs' ever since. I am very intrigued to see that you are following in the footsteps of your ancestors by wearing the adopted Punjabi women's garb as your own, but now go around preaching and coercing our women as to how they should be living their lives! I suggest that take a deep look inside yourselves, given this historical perspective."
Monday, August 10, 2015
Firstly, it is necessary to bring about a little bit of a historical flashback, which very few foreign correspondents (and unfortunately also Indian journalists) care to do, which would make for a more balanced view of the problem… …If ever there was persecution, it was of the Hindus at the hands of Christians, who were actually welcomed in this country, as they have been welcomed in no other place in this Planet. Indeed, the first Christian community of the world, that of the Syrian Christians, was established in Kerala in the first century; they were able to live in peace and practice their religion freely, even imbibing some of the local Hindu customs, until the Jesuits came in the 16th century and told them it was “heathen” to have anything to do with the Hindus, thereby breaking the Syrian Church in two. When, Vasco de Gama, landed in Kerala in 1498, he was generously received by Zamorin, the Hindu king of Calicut, who granted him the right to establish warehouses for commerce. But once again, Hindu tolerance was exploited and the Portuguese wanted more and more: in 1510, Alfonso de Albuquerque seized Goa, where he started a reign of terror, burning “heretics”, crucifying Brahmins, using false theories to forcibly convert the lower castes, razing temples to build churches upon them and encouraging his soldiers to take Indian mistresses. Indeed, the Portuguese perpetrated here some of the worst atrocities ever committed in Asia by Christianity upon another religion. Ultimately, the Portuguese had to be kicked out of India, when all other colonisers had already left. British missionaries in India were always supporters of colonialism; they encouraged it and their whole structure was based on “the good Western civilised world being brought to the Pagans”. Because, in the words of Claudius Buccchanan, a chaplain attached to the East India Company, “neither truth, nor honesty, honour, gratitude, nor charity, is to be found in the breast of a Hindoo”! What a comment about a nation that gave the world the Vedas, at a time when Europeans were still grappling in their caves! And it is in this way that the British allowed entire chunks of territories in the East, where lived tribals, whose poverty and simplicity, made them easy preys to be converted to Christianity. By doing so, the Christian missionaries cut a people from their roots and tradition, made them look westwards towards a culture and a way of life which was not theirs. And the result is there today for everyone to see: it is in these eastern States, some of which are 90% Christians, that one finds the biggest drug problems (and crime) in India. It should also be said that many of the eastern separatist movements have been covertly encouraged by Christian missionaries on the ground that “tribals were there before the ‘Aryan Hindus’ invaded India and imposed Hinduism upon on them”. The trouble is that the latest archeological and linguistic discoveries point out to the fact that there never was an Aryan invasion of India – it just was an invention of the British and the missionaries to serve their purpose. Secondly, Christianity has always striven on the myth of persecution, which in turn bred “martyrs” and saints, indispensable to the propagation of Christianity. But it is little known, for instance, that the first “saints” of Christianity, “martyred” in Rome, a highly refined civilization, which had evolved a remarkable system of Gods and Goddesses, some of whom were derived from Hindu mythology via the Greeks, were actually killed (a normal practice in those days), while bullying peaceful Romans to embrace the “true” religion, in the same way that later Christian missionaries will browbeat “heathen” Hindus, adoring many Gods, into believing that Jesus was the only “true” God. Most if the incidents of ‘persecution’ of Christians in India are between converted tribals versus non-converted tribals, clashes of pent-up jealousies, of old village feuds and land disputes. It is also an outcome of what - it should be said - are the aggressive methods of the Pentecost and seventh Adventists missionaries, known for their muscular ways of converting. Thirdly, conversions in India by Christian missionaries of low caste Hindus and tribals are sometimes nothing short of fraudulent and shameful. American missionaries are investing huge amounts of money in India, which come from donation drives in the United States where gullible Americans think the dollars they are giving go towards uplifting “poor and uneducated Indians”. It is common in Kerala, for instance, particularly in the poor coastal districts, to have “miracle boxes” put in local churches: the gullible villager writes out a paper mentioning his wish: a fishing boat, a loan for a pukka house, fees for the son’s schooling… And lo, a few weeks later, the miracle happens ! And of course the whole family converts, making others in the village follow suit… American, Australian or British missionaries (and their Governments) would like us to believe that democracy includes the freedom to convert by any means. But France for example, a traditionally Christian country, has a Minister who is in charge of hunting down “sects”. And by sects, it is meant anything that does not fall within the recognised family of Christianity – even the Church of Scientology, favored by some Hollywood stars such as Tom Cruise or John Travolta, is ruthlessly hounded. And look at what the Americans did to the Osho movement in Arizona, or how innocent children and women were burnt down by the FBI (with the assistance of the US army) in Waco Texas, because they belonged to a dangerous sect. Did you know that the Christianity is dying in the West ? Not only church attendance is falling dramatically because spirituality has deserted it, but less and less youth find the vocation to become priests or nuns. And as a result, say in the rural parts of France, you will find only one priest for six or seven villages, whereas till the late seventies the smallest hamlet had its own parish priest. And where is Christianity finding new priests today ? In the Third World, of course ! And India, because of the innate impulsion of its people towards God, is a very fertile recruiting ground for the Church, particularly in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Hence the huge attention that India is getting from the United States, Australia, or England and the massive conversion drive going on today. It is sad that Indians, once converted, specially the priests and nuns, tend to turn against their own country and help in the conversion drive. There are very few “White” missionaries left in India and most of the conversions are done today by Indian priests. A few years back, during the Bishop’s conference in Bangalore, it was restated by bishops and priests from all over India, that conversion is the FIRST priority of the Church here. But are the priests and Bishops aware that they would never find in any western country the same freedom to convert that they take for granted in India ? Do they know that in China they would be expelled, if not put into jail ? Do they realize that they have been honored guests in this country for nearly two thousand years and that they are betraying those that gave them peace and freedom ? Hinduism, the religion of tolerance, the coming spirituality of this new millennium, has survived the unspeakable barbarism of wave after wave of Muslim invasions, the insidious onslaught of Western colonialism which has killed the spirit of so may Third World countries and the soul-stifling assault of Nehruvianism. But will it survive the present Christian offensive ? Many Hindu religious leaders feel that Christianity is a real threat today, as in numerous ways it is similar to Hinduism, from which Christ borrowed so many concepts (see Sri Sri Ravi Shankar’s book: “ Hinduism and Christianity”).. It is thus necessary that Indian themselves become more aware of the danger their culture and unique civilisation is facing at the hands of missionaries sponsored by foreign money. It is also necessary that they stop listening to the Marxist- influenced English newspapers’ defense of the right of Christian missionaries to convert innocent Hindus. Conversion belongs to the times of colonialism. We have entered in the era of Unity, of coming together, of tolerance and accepting each other as we are – not of converting in the name of one elusive “true” God. When Christianity will accept the right of other people to follow their own beliefs and creeds, the only will Jesus Christ’s Spirit truly radiate in the world. -François Gautier ,French Indologist writing for Shanknaa
Few EXTRACTS from the book “The RED Sari” by Javier Moro 1) Rajiv took pride in calling himself a man with finest British Etiquette 2) Self presentation by proper dressing was considered the best way to win over hearts of people 3) Rajiv felt comfortable with Sonia since she shared simplicity which he never found in an Indian girl 4) After Sonia entered into his house, PENNE ARRABIATA was the flavor of the house and her garden broccoli was considered best in the city 5) Indira used handwritten notes as instructions & passed it through her secretary to communicate to her Sons & Daughter-In-Laws 6) They always conversed Italian & French in the house but mainly used Italian 7) Talking in English during lunches and Hindi during Dinner was the defined protocol 8) Indira kicked Maneka out of her house just after her sanjay’s death and she also tried to snatch away her Grandson from his mother 9) Rajiv used to speak with people in Hindi (1 hour a day) order not to lose touch with the accent 10) The couple’s innermost circle of friends included the Quattrochi Couple, her sister & sister’s husband (Spanish Diplomat) and mainly other foreign couples 11) The couple ensured they visited Europe for every Christmas/New Year & Easter to get away from the maddening Indian crowd 12) Sonia applied for citizenship because after her husband became an MP and the opposition used this to target him 13) Rajiv took Prime Minister-ship because that was the only way to ensure the safety of his wife & kids 14) Both Indira’s / Rajiv’s death was used as an ideal situation to win the Election based on SYMPATHY WAVES In what way was this FAMILY an IDEAL INDIAN FAMILY, they have no values which can describe them remotely INDIAN. This book is all praises for Sonia & her family but with few Hints on real behind the scene facts.
An ancient technology is helping India’s “water man” save thousands of parched villages
In 1985, a 28-year-old man from Uttar Pradesh quit his government job, left his family and arrived in the dead of the night at a small village in Rajasthan’s Alwar district. Rajendra Singh, along with four companions from the Tarun Bharat Sangh, a non-profit that traces its origins to the University of Rajasthan, wanted to work in the hinterland. The initial idea was to establish clinics. “Maybe it was some social chromosomes that fired my imagination to do something useful,” Singh said in an interview. “I was a government servant in Jaipur, fed up with just sending statistics to officials.” It look him a few months before finding his life’s mission—and it took an ancient innovation, a fast disappearing traditional technology, to help him transform the lives of thousands of villagers in one of India’s most arid regions.On March 20, Singh was awarded the 2015 Stockholm Water Prize, sometimes described as the Nobel prize for water. “Rajendra Singh did not insist with the clinics,” the Stockholm International Water Institute, which awards the prize, said in a statement. “Instead, and with the help of the villagers, he set out to build johads, or traditional earthen dams.” “Two decades after Rajendra Singh arrived in Rajasthan, 8,600 johads and other structures to collect water had been built,” it observed. “Water had been brought back to a 1,000 villages across the state.” Discovering the johad But India’s “water man” knew little about johads—or water conservation, for that matter—when he arrived in Alwar. With degrees in ayurvedic medicine and Hindi, the son of a wealthy landowner from Uttar Pradesh’s Bagpat district had spent time as a student activist, before working for an adult education project. After spending weeks roaming this corner of the Aravalli hills, Singh met Mangu Meena and Nathi Bhalai (pdf), who introduced him to the johad, a large crescent-shaped dam made of earth and rocks.These ancient structures—evidence of reservoirs to collect rainwater date back to 1500 BC—were designed not only to hold runoff from monsoon rains, but also help this water percolate into the ground and help improve the water table. But these large earthen structures require substantial manpower and are typically community projects. Yet, after Singh’s first success in Gopalpura, nearby villages needed little encouragement. “The idea spread like fire in the parched villages,” Singh wrote in 2009. “Village people started approaching me for helping them to do the same in their areas.” Between 1985 and 2007, he recorded, some 8,600 such structures in over 1,068 villages across 6,500 square kilometres had been built by local communities working with the Tarun Bharat Sangh.The impact of these johads was spectacular. The water table—the depth underground from where water may be extracted—rose from about 100 metres to between about 13 metres and 3 metres. The area under single cropping increased from 11% to 70%, and the area under double cropping went from 3% to 50%. Forest cover expanded from 7% to 40%. In 2001, when Singh was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award, the citation mentioned: Now, 4,500 working johads dot Alwar and ten adjacent districts. Fed by a protected watershed and the revitalising impact of the village reservoirs, five once-dormant rivers now flow year round. Land under cultivation has grown by five times and farm incomes are rising. For work, men no longer need to leave home. And for water, these days women need walk no farther than the village well.Then, as now, the ancient johad has been at the heart of Singh’s conservation work. And, with India’s groundwater level dropping precipitously and an increase in pollution levels, perhaps this humble, earthen dam can help stem the tide. http://qz.com/367875/an-ancient-technology-is-helping-indias-water-man-save-thousands-of-parched-villages/
Position of Hindu Women in the Epic Age From the two great epics, it has been found that even in the epic age women enjoyed a respectable position. Like for instance, the Mahabharata asks a man to treat his wife with great kindness even if he is extremely angry. A man is not supposed to use cruel words to her, as because a person himself is born as his son; so it is expected from him that he should treat his wife with the same regard as he shows towards his mother. Further, in another context of this great epic, it is stated that one`s wife is one`s friend at the time of death; which means that though a person may have many friends but his wife is the real friend in his difficult times. In another passage, women are said to be honourable. It was believed that by dishonouring or neglecting a woman one honours or disregards Goddess Laxmi. Before coming to Smriti Shastra, it may be mentioned that the word `patni` implies equal participation of men and women in sacrifices. In the Manu Smriti, it has been mentioned that women are given a very respectable position in the household. In the same context, Manu states that, where they are not honoured, all rites become futile. It is also stated that a family, in which ladies suffer soon perishes. Similar sentiments are expressed in several other verses of the Manu-Smriti. This epic also emphasises that the wife is the better half of her husband; she is his greatest friend and is the source of his dharma, artha and kama. In legal matters too, women have assured privileges. Interestingly, in some respects, women appear to have enjoyed great privilege, sometimes higher than that of men. Even as a result of committing some big offences, women might be abandoned but they did not lose the right to maintenance. According to the Vashistha Smriti, the son of a degraded person becomes degraded; but the daughter of such a person is not subjected to apostasy. According to some authorities, women had to undergo only half the prayaschitta prescribed for men committing the same offence. Further, it has also been found that in ancient societies women of all castes, excepting those born in the reverse order of castes, were exempted from all taxes. According to certain authorities, newly married girls and unmarried girls and pregnant women were to be fed before others in the household. Apastamba Dharma Shastra ordains that the rules, not stated in it, are to be ascertained from women. Apastamba Grhya Sutra provides that usages, connected with marriage, are to be learnt from women.
Lha-chen-Rgyalbu-Rinchan was first non Hindu king of Kashmir who belonged to Islamic faith(convert). He was not a born Muslim but Buddhist by faith. Rinchan’s father was killed in some internal disputes in Ladakh leading him to run away in exile and settle as a refugee in Kashmir. He took refuge in castle of Ram Chand commander of Raja Sahadeva. Here he met Shamshir a Persian Muslim immigrant- another fellow like him. Rinchan first won confidence of Ram Chand and later killed him to ascent himself to throne and proclaimed himself as king of Kashmir on 6th October 1320.He gained peace by marrying Ram Chand’s daughter Kota Rani and appointing his son Rawan Chand on his father’s post of commander in chief and Shamsir as vazir(Minister) of his kingdom. Even after securing peace he did not feel secure. He wanted to remove stigma that he captured throne by fraud. Therefore he made an attempt to identify himself with the country and the people to understand and follow their culture, religion and traditions, as one of them. To begin with he expressed desire to accept Saiva cult which was most popular form of religion followed in Kashmir. He approached Devaswami Pundit who was head guru of Court Pundits of Kashmir in order to become his disciple and entreated him as his devotees. Devaswami Pundit appeared to be a very strong head man but without imagination. He turned down request of Rinchan as he was Buddhist by origin. (Ref Jonaraja page 20-21). Hindu Kashmir lost this opportunity forever but Shamshir made full use of it. Finding Rinchan in a state of confusion, he consoled him, pleaded him and requested him to leave the decision to chance. It was agreed that he would accept the religion of that person whom he would first see the next morning. By sheer chance of manipulation by Shamshir it happened, that Rinchan eyes fell on a Muslim fakir Sayed Sharafuddin Bulbul shah the very next morning. He accepted Islam from Bulbul shah and adopted name of Shah Sadruddin as first Muslim ruler of Kashmir. After accepting Islam Rinchan founded Rinchanpura a quarter in Kashmir and build first mosque in Kashmir known as “Bud Masheed” on the site of a Buddhist temple. Not very far from here he built another mosque at Ali Kadal and started a Langarkhana (public charity kitchen) after his mentor Bulbul Shah as Bulbul Langer. He even named his only son born with Hindu wife Kota Rani as Haidar and trusted him to the care of Shamshir. Under Rinchan rule state religion of Kashmir became Islam and full patronage was given for conversion to Islam to both Hindus as well as Buddhists leading to rapid decline in their numbers. Rinchan was later attacked by relatives of king Sahadeva and he died of wounds on 25 November 1353.
Mahmud of Ghazni The founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty was a former Turkish slave, recognized by the Iranian Muslims as governor of Ghazni (a town near Kandahar). His son Mahmud (ruled in 998-1030) expanded the empire further into India. A devout Muslim, Mahmud converted the Ghaznavids into Islam, thus bringing Islam into the sub-continent’s local population. In the 11th century, he made Ghazni the capital of the vast empire of the Ghaznavids, Afghanistan’s first Muslim dynasty. The atrocities by Mahmud of Ghazni makes the Taliban look benign by comparison. Will Durant explains:[Reference] “The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within… For four hundred years (600-1000 A.D.) India invited conquest; and at last it came.” “In the year 997 a Turkish chieftain by the name of Mahmud became sultan of the little state of Ghazni, in eastern Afghanistan. Mahmud knew that his throne was young and poor, and saw that India, across the border, was old and rich; the conclusion was obvious. Pretending a holy zeal for destroying Hindu idolatry across the frontier with a force inspired by a pious aspiration for booty. He met the unprepared Hindus at Bhimnagar, slaughtered them, pillaged their cities, destroyed their temples, and carried away the accumulated treasures of centuries. Returning to Ghazni he astonished the ambassadors of foreign powers by displaying “jewels and un-bored pearls and rubies shinning like sparks, or like wine congealed with ice, and emeralds like fresh sprigs of myrtle, and diamonds in size and weight like pomegranates.”” “Each winter Mahmud descended into India, filled his treasure chest with spoils, and amused his men with full freedom to pillage and kill; each spring he returned to his capital richer than before. At Mathura (on the Jumna) he took from the temple its statues of gold encrusted with precious stones, and emptied it coffers of a vast quantity of gold, silver and jewelry; he expressed his admiration for the architecture of the great shrine, judged that its duplication would cost one hundred million dinars and the labor of two hundred years, and then ordered it to be soaked with naptha and burnt to the ground. Six years later he sacked another opulent city of northern India, Somnath, killed all its fifty thousand inhabitants, and dragged its wealth to Ghazni. In the end he became, perhaps, the richest king that history has ever known.” “Sometimes he spared the population of the ravaged cities, and took them home to be sold as slaves; but so great was the number of such captives that after some years no one could be found to offer more than a few schillings for a slave. Before every important engagement Mahmud knelt in prayer, and asked the blessing of God upon his arms. He reigned for a third of a century; and when he died, full of years and honors, Moslem historians ranked him greatest monarch of his time, and one of the greatest sovereigns of any age.” Reference:“The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage“, by Will Durant. MJF Books, NY. 1935. pp. 459-463
Vedic people were not primitive. They were more civilized than any other race of that period. The rules and regulations stipulated for the king and the duties and prerogatives assigned to the king show that they are highly organised and very much advanced in civilization. It is amazing to see all the important Departments or Ministries were in place during the Vedic time. Ministries: Grhapati, Vanaspati, Pasupati, Dharmapati, Brhaspati Ministers : Savita, Agni, Soma, Brahaspati, Indra, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna Coronation and Consecration The rites and rituals connected with the Coronation and Consecration ceremony are described in the Satapata Brahmana (5-3, 5-4). On the first day of the five day ceremony, offerings are made to eight deities- Savita, Agni, Soma, Brahaspati, Indra, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna These eight Gods are called ‘Devasus’ or Divine Quickeners’ and each has an epithet of his own. While offering the oblations, each is invoked along with his epithet which bespeaks one or other aspect of royal prerogatives, duties and functions. Thus Savita is invoked as Satyaprasava for true impulse or righteous energy of the king. ( I will compare it to the modern Ministry of External Affairs and Prime Minister’s Office) Agni as Grhapati for mastery of the household( Ministry of Human Resources) Soma as Vanaspati for the protection of forests and agriculture (Ministry of Agriculture and Forests) Brhaspati Vak for power of speech ( Ministry of Information and Broadcasting) Indra as Jyeshta for supremacy or predominance in matters of administration (Ministry of Home Affairs) Rudra as Pasupati for protection of cattle,(Ministry of Animal Husbandry) Mitra as Satya for truth,(Ministry of Moral Education) And lastly offering to Varuna and moral governor as Dharmapati for upholding Dharma or Law. The last epithet viz, that of Varuna makes the king upholder of law or one who enforces law and order. (Ministry of Law and Order) Thus each epithet is applied with an eye to each prerogative or duty of the king-designate. Eight Ministers for Tamil Kings Tamil kings who ruled in the southern part of India two thousand years ago also had Eight Advisers. The council was called ‘EnPerayam.’ It consisted of Chief of Accounts Chief of Executive officials Chief of Treasury officials Chief of Palace guards Leading citizens representatives Chief of Infantry Chief of Elephantry Chief of the Cavalry Shivaji’s Eight Ministers Ashta Pradhan of Veera Shivaji Shivaji who was coronated in 1674 had Eight Ministers to run the country. The council was called Ashta Pradhan. Peshwa: Prime Minister Amatya: Minister in charge of Financial matters Sacheev: Chief of Administration Mantri: Home Minister Sumant: Foreign Minister Senapati: Commander in Chief, Defence Minister Nyayadish: Law Minister/ Chief Justice Panditrao: Minister in charge of Religious Affairs Council of Eight Poets: Ashta Diggajas Ancient King Vikramaditya had a Council of Nine Scholars known as Navaratnas (Nine Gems). Vijayanagara kings had a group of Eight Poets/scholars knows as Ashta Diggajas ( Eight Elephants in 8 cardinal points). They were very popular because of their poetical works. The eight poets were Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayagari Mallana, Pingali Surana,Tenali Ramakrishna, Dhurjati Ayyalaraju, Ramaraja Bhushandu, Rama Bhadrudu. Of the eight poets, Tenali Ramakrishna was the most famous person. He was a great poet and a jester. His anecdotes are known to every child of South India. Vijayanagara Emperor Krishna Devaraya who ruled between 1509 and 1529 AD had these eight poets. He himself was a great poet. Looking at these councils, one may conclude that the ancient practice of having EIGHT COUNCILLORS was followed till recent times. Democratic Election:- First King Soma The first king elected democratically on earth was a Vedic king named SOMA. As to the origin of kingship or institution of monarchy the Aitareya Brahmana recounts the following anecdote. Once Gods were defeated by the Asuras (demons) in every direction. At that time there was no king among Gods. Brooding over the cause of their signal defeat at the hands of the Asuras, thus said the Gods—Because we are without a king they have been able to defeat us;we shall ELECT a king.’ All consented unanimously. They ELECTED god Soma as their king and conquered all the directions guided by King Soma. This passage proves the emergence of kingship by ELECTION at the time of emergency or national calamity. Naturally the first king had to be elected whether in heaven or earth. Later hereditary kingship was followed