Monday, March 2, 2015

YASHODHARMAN ~ यशोधर्मा,King of Malwa kept Malichha(Non Hindus), on defensive for 600 years.

YASHODHARMAN ~ यशोधर्मा) was the Maharaja of Malwa, in central India, during the early part of the 6th century.
THE KING WHO DESTROYED THE MLECHHA AND HIS LANDS WERE KEPT IN CHECK FOR ANOTHER 600 YEARS.Yasodharman defeated Huna Mihirkula around 515AD(Mihirkula came to Malwa throne in 510AD).
The Gupta Empire had been weakened by the attacks of the Indo-Hephthalites, known in India as the Hunas, towards the end of the 5th century, which caused it to break up into smaller states. Yasodharman defeated a Huna army in 528, which checked the Huna expansion in India. Twin monolithic pillars at Sondani in Mandsaur District were erected by Yasodharman as a record of his victory. LINK

Victory pillar of Yashodharman at Sondani, Mandsaur
Yasodharman and the Gupta Emperor Narasimhagupta defeated a Huna army and their ruler Mihirakula in 528 AD and drove the Huns out of India. Legend has it that Yashodharman, originally a prince, had lost his kingdom and was saved by a girl while wandering in a forest.It is said that it was a message from this girl, whom he later considered a sister, that acted as a motivation behind his military endeavours. Twin monolithic pillars at Sondani in Mandsaur District were erected by Yasodharman as a record of his victory.

The victory of Yasodharman is mentioned in the sentence “Ajay Jarto Hunan” in the grammar of Chandra of the sixth century. This mention in the phrase sentence अजय जर्टो हुणान or “ Ajay Jarto Huṇān ”, refers to the defeat of Huns by the Jats under the leadership of Yasodharman.
Three inscriptions of Yasodharman have been found in Mandsaur. One of these is of samvat 589 (532 AD). Yasodharman had acquired the title of Vikramaditya.The Kashmiri poet Kalhana has mentioned about three Kalidasas. The second Kalidasa, who wrote the books 'Raguvansha' and 'Jyotirvidabharan', was court poet of Yasodharman. According to some analysts, Kalidasa has mentioned the victories of Yasodharman as 'Raghu-digvijaya'. His pillars claim that his rule extended from Himalayas in the north to Travancore in south, although that seems rather unlikely. The ruler of Magadha had become his friend.

Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman 532 AD

    
    Victory pillar of Yashodharman at Sondani, Mandsaur
  • May that very long banner of (the god) Shûlapâni destroy the glory of your enemies; (that banner) which bears (a representation of) the bull (Nandi), marked by the five fingers (dipped in some dye and then) placed on him by (Parvati) the daughter of the mountain (Himalaya), who causes the distant regions, in which the demons are driven wild with fear by (his) terrible bellowings, to shake; (and) who makes the glens of (the mountain) Sumeru to have their rocks split open by the blows of his horns!
  • (Line 2.) He, to whose arm, as if (to the arm) of (the god) Shingapani, the fore-arm of which is marked with callous parts caused by the hard string of (his) bow, (and) which is steadfast in the successful carrying out of vows for the benefit of mankind, the earth betook itself (for succour), when it was afflicted by kings of the present age, who manifested pride; who were cruel through want of proper training; who, from delusion, transgressed the path of good conduct; (and) who were destitute of virtuous delights:
  • (L. 3.) He who, in this age which is the ravisher of good behaviour, through the action simply of (his good) intentions shone gloriously, not associating with other kings who adopted a reprehensible course of conduct, just as an offering of flowers (is beautiful when it is not laid down) in the dust; he in whom, possessed of a wealth of virtue, (and so) falling but little short of Manu and Bharata and Alarka and Mandhatri, the title of "universal sovereign" shines more (than in any other), like a resplendent level (set) in good gold:
  • (L. 4.) He who, spurning (the confinement of) the boundaries of his own house, enjoys those countries, thickly covered over with deserts and mountains and trees and thickets and rivers and strong-armed heroes, (and) having (their) kings assaulted by (his) prowess, which were not enjoyed (even) by the lords of the Guptas, whose prowess was displayed by invading the whole (remainder of the) earth, (and) which the command of the chiefs of the Hunas , that established itself on the tiaras of (many) kings, failed to penetrate:
  • (L. 5.) He before whose feet chieftains, having (their) arrogance removed by the strength of (his) arm, bow down, from the neighbourhood of the (river) Lauhitya up to (the mountain) Mahendra, the lands at the foot of which are impenetrable through the groves of palmyra-trees, (and) from (Himalaya) the mountain of snow, the tablelands of which are embraced by the (river) Ganga, up to the Western Ocean, by which (all) the divisions of the earth are made of various hues through the intermingling of the rays of the jewels in the locks of hair on the tops of (their) heads:
(L.6.) He by whom (his) head has never been brought into the humility of obeisance to any other save (the god) Sthanu; he, through the embraces of whose arms (Himalaya) the mountain of snow carries no longer the pride of the title of being a place that is difficult of access; he to whose two feet respect was paid, with complimentary presents of the flowers from the lock of hair on the top of (his) head, by even that (famous) king Mihirakula, whose forehead was pained through being bent low down by the strength of (his) arm in (the act of compelling) obeisance:
  • (L. 7.) By him, the king, the glorious Yashodharman, the firm beams of whose arms are as charming as pillars, this column, which shall endure to the time of the destruction of the world, has been erected here, as if to measure out the earth; as if to enumerate on high the multitude of the heavenly lights; (and) as if to point out the path of his own fame to the skies above, acquired by good actions; (this column) which shines refulgent, as if it were a lofty arm of the earth, raised up in joy to write upon the surface of the moon the excellence of the virtues of Yashodharman, to the effect that "His birth (is) in a lineage that is worthy to be eulogised; there is seen in him a charming behaviour that is destructive of sin; he is the abode of religion; (and) the (good) customs of mankind continue current, unimpeded (in any way) by him."
  • (L. 9.) From a desire thus to praise this king, of meritorious actions, (these) verses have been composed by V sula, the son of Kakka. (This
    Text
    ये भुक्ता गुंप्तनाथैर्न्न सकलवसुधाक्क्रान्तिदृष्टप्रतापै -
    र्न्नाज्ञा हूणाधिपानां क्षितिपतिमुकुटाध्यासिनी यान्प्रविष्टा।।
    ... ... ... ...
    ... ... ... ...
    आलौहित्योप मण्ठात्तलवनगहनोपत्यकादामहेंनद्रा-
    दागंगाश्लिष्टसानोस्तुहिनशिखरिणः पश्छिमादापयोधे।।
    सामन्तैर्यस्य बाहुद्रविणहृततदैः पादयोरानमद्भिः।
    ... ... ... ...
    नीचैस्तेनापि यस्य प्रणतिभुजबलावर्ज्जनक्लिष्टूर्ध्ना-
    चुडापुष्पोपहारैर्मिहिरकुलनृपेणार्चितं पदयुग्मं ।।
    Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman
    eulogy) has been engraved by Govinda.
From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148.
ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि भारत क्या, संसार के इतिहास में हूणों के आक्रमण प्रसिद्ध हैं। इन्होंने यूरोप और एशिया दोनो ही जगह उथल-पुथल मचा दी थी। जाट-जाति के लिए यह सर्वत्र नाशकारी सिद्ध हुए। किन्तु यूरोप और एशिया दोनो ही स्थानों पर जाटों ने इनकी शक्ति का सामना किया। यद्यपि जाट भी इनके युद्धों में क्षीणबल हो गए, किन्तु उन्होंने हूणों के बढ़ते हुए प्रभाव को इतना धक्का पहुंचाया कि आज हूणों की न कोई स्वतंत्र जाति है और न राज्य। सुदूर कश्मीर में अवश्य कुछ दिन उनका राज्य रहा। यूरोप को रोंदते हुए इनका दल जब रोम पहुंचा तो वहां के गाथ (जाट) योद्धाओं ने ऐसा लोहा बजाया कि उन्हें उलटे पैरों लौटना पड़ा। भारत में आने पर भी जल-प्रलय की भांति जब ये आगे बढ़ने लगे तो मध्य-भारत के अधीश्वर महाराजा यशोधर्मा ने इनको ऐसा खदेड़ा कि कश्मीर में जाकर दम लिया।
यशोधर्मा के समय के तीन शिलालेख्स प्राप्त हुए हैं। ये तीनों ही मन्दसौर में पाए गए हैं। इनमें एक शिलालेख मालव संवत् 589 ईसवी (सन् 532) का है। इन लेखों में से पहले लेख में लिखा है-
उत्तर में हिमालय से दक्षिण में महेन्द्र पर्वत के सामन्त जिसके पैरों में गिरते हैं। जिसके चरणों पर प्रतापी (राजा हूणों के सरदार) भी सिर झुकाना पड़ता है।
महाराज यशोधर्मा ने मिहिरकुल हूण को हराकर अपने को उत्तरी-भारत का सम्राट घोषित किया।1 गुप्त-राज्य की समाप्ति भी इसी समय के कुछ काल के पश्चात् हो गई होगी।
हूणों से जिस समय यशोधर्मा का युद्ध हुआ था, उस समय उनकी अध्यक्षता में उज्जैन और मगध प्रदेशों के राजा इकट्ठे हुए थे। कोई-कोई इतिहास-लेखक कहरूर में इस युद्ध का होना बतलाते हैं और कोई-कोई मध्य भारत के किसी स्थान पर। मि. एलन लिखते हैं कि - “बालादित्य ने तो केवल मगध की रक्षा की होगी, परन्तु अन्त में यशोधर्मा ने ही उसे पूर्णतया परास्त कर कैद कर लिया होगा।” ‘अर्ली हिस्ट्री आफ इण्डिया’ के पृष्ठ 318-319 में मि. विनसेण्ट स्मिथ ने भी इस बात का समर्थन किया है कि महाराज यशोधर्मा ने मिहिरकुल को गिरफ्तार कर लिया था।
कुछ दिन कैद रखने के पश्चात् महाराज यशोधर्मा ने मिहिरकुल को छोड़ दिया और वह छूटने पर काश्मीर की ओर चला गया, क्योंकि इसी बीच साकल नगरी, जो कि आरम्भ में वहां के जाट-राज्य को इन्होंने नष्ट करके अपनी राजधानी बनाई थी, इसके हाथ से निकल चुकी थी। इसी के छोटे भाई ने उस पर अपना अधिकार जमा लिया।
महाराज यशोधर्मा के संबंध में यह भी कहा जाता है कि उन्होंने विक्रमादित्य की पदवी धारण की थी2 और मालवे के मालव संवत् को विक्रमी संवत के नाम से प्रसिद्ध किया था। अभी इस मत का समर्थन पूरी तरह से नहीं हुआ है। कुछ इतिहासकार इस मत का विरोध भी करते हैं।
काश्मीर के प्रसिद्ध संस्कृत-कवि कल्हण [1] ने तीन कालिदासों का वर्णन किया है। दूसरा कालिदास जिसने कि रघुवंश और ज्योतिर्विदाभरण आदि ग्रन्थ लिखें हैं इन्हीं महाराज यशोधर्मा की सभा का एक रत्न था। रघुवंश में राजा रघु की दिग्विजय के वर्णन को पढने से स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि महाराज यशोधर्मा ने किस भांति से किन-किन देशों को विजय किया था। कालिदास ने महाराज यशोधर्मा के ही विजय को रघु-दिग्विजय का रूप दिया है। जिन प्रदेशों का वर्णन रघुवंश में है, रामायणकाल में उनके इनसे कुछ भिन्न नाम थे। इनका राज्य उत्तर में हिमालयसे लेकर दक्षिण में ट्रावनकोर तक फैल गया था। मगध का राजा इनका मित्र बन गया था। उसी समय भारत में फाहियान चीनी यात्री आया था। उसने भारत के बारे में लिखा है-
“भारत में इस समय सुख-संपर्ति पूर्ण रूप से है। सदाचार उसके निवासियों का धर्म है। धार्मिक सत्रों में निर्धनों को अन्न बांटे जाते हैं। मुफ्त इलाज करने वाले औषधालय जगह-जगह स्थापित हैं। अपराध बहुत ही कम होते हैं। राज्य कर्मचारियों को ठीक समय पर वेतन मिलता है। रिश्वत लेना पाप समझा जाता है। समस्त देश में मांस-मदिरा का प्रचार बहुत ही थोड़ा है। प्याज और लहसुन खाना अच्छा नहीं समझा जाता। बौद्ध भिक्षुओं के खान-पान का प्रबन्ध धनिकों की ओर से होता है। डकैतियां और चोरियां भी नहीं होती हैं। प्राण-दण्ड किसी को भी नहीं दिया जाता। कठोर दण्ड देते समय पंचायत से राय ली जाती है। सिक्के थोड़े हैं, कौड़ियों का भी चलन है। लोग इतने ईमानदार हैं कि ताले नही लगाने पड़ते।”


1.भारत के प्राचीन राजवंश भाग 2
2. राजतरंगिणी काव्य ।


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-712

External links

References

  1. Jump up Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148
  2. Jump up Post Gupta Kings in North India
  3. Jump up Kalhana: Rajatarangini
  4. Jump up Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 (Page 712)
  5. Jump up to: 5.0 5.1 CV Vaidya, History of Medieval Hindu India
  6. Jump up Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 254.
  7. Jump up Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 (Page 707)
  8. Jump up The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Jarta or Jartika or Jartrika theory, pp.58-60
  9. Jump up A New His. of Ind. Peop., Vol. VI, p. 197
  10. Jump up Des Raj, op.cit., pp. 57-58, Y.P. Shastri, op.cit., Hindi ed., p. 618. Urdu ed, p. 421; Vaidya, op.cit., Vol. I, p. 88.
  11. Jump up The His. and Cul. Of Ind. Peop., Vol. III (Class. Age) p. 39, fn. 1-2.
  12. Jump up Archae, Sur. of Ind., Vol. VI, (1871-73), p. 60.
  13. Jump up John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148.

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