Sunday, November 30, 2014

POLITY AND GOVERNANCE IN VED

Photo: =========== Polity And Governance In Ved ===========

Swaraj-Freedom :  

There are forty-nine Riks about Swaraj in the Rig Ved Samhita.  The word “Swarajah” occurs in seven mantras, “Swarajam” in four mantras, “Swaraje” in three mantras, “Swarajyam” in sixteen mantras, “Swarajye” in one mantra and “Swarat” in five mantras.  

आ वामश्वासः शुचयः पयस्पा वातरंहसो दिव्यासो अत्याः | 
मनोजुवो वर्षणो वीतप्र्ष्ठा एह सवराजो अश्विनावहन्तु || 
(Rig Ved 1.181.2)  

In this mantra the phrase “सवराजो अश्विनावहन्तु” indicates : O Ashwins ! Let Swaraj bring you here i.e. may Swaraj be established and coming here you become ruler of Swaraj.   

तं घेमित्था नमस्विन उप सवराजमासते | 
(Rig Ved 1.36.7)  

“To him in his own Swaraj draw near in worship the devout.” i.e. after being united may the chief men serve (rule) the Swaraj devotedly.   

इदं नमो वर्षभाय सवराजे सत्यशुष्माय तवसे.अवाचि | 
अस्मिन्निन्द्र वर्जने सर्ववीराः समत सूरिभिस्तव शर्मन सयाम ||
(Rig Ved 1.51.15)  

“To him the Mighty One, the self-resplendent, verily strong and great, this praise is uttered. May we and all the heroes, with the princes, be, in this fray, O Indra, in thy keeping.”  

This hymn is being recited against the fear of external enemies in the absence of a king. Here the word “सवराजे” signifies the ruler of Swaraj, the self-resplendent Indra.  

सवराळ इन्द्रो दम आ विश्वगूर्तः सवरिरमत्रो ववक्षे रणाय || 
(Rig Ved 1.61.9)

“Indra, approved by all men, self-resplendent, waxed in his home, loud-voiced and strong for battle.”  

He who has become the ruler of Swaraj after winning the battle by vanquishing enemies come to be known as “svarāḷ indro”.  

Democracy In Ved :  

There is evidence in Vedas that in Vedic age the king was elected by the people. The concept of Democracy is found in the Samhitas.  

आ तवाहार्षमन्तरेधि धरुवस्तिष्ठाविचाचलिः | 
विशस्त्वा सर्वा वाञ्छन्तु मा तवद राष्ट्रमधि भरशत || 
इहैवैधि माप चयोष्ठाः पर्वत इवाविचाचलिः | 
इन्द्रैवेह धरुवस्तिष्ठेह राष्ट्रमु धारय || 
(Rig Ved 10.173.1-2, Atharva Ved 6.87.1-2)  

“Be with us; I have chosen you: stand stedfast and immovable. Let all the people wish for you, let not your kingship fall away. Be even here; fall not away, be like a mountain unremoved. Stand stedfast here like Indra's self, and hold the kingship in the grasp.”  

The word “विशस्त्वा सर्वा वाञ्छन्तु” signifies that : We have chosen you as our king.  The subjects recite this mantra while choosing their king.  

Such mantras are found in Atharva Ved Samhita too. Atharva Ved 3.3.5 mentions the charm for restoration of an expelled king. 

“Let your opponents call you back. Your friends have chosen you again. Indra and Agni, all the Deities have kept your home amid the tribe.” 

(Atharva Ved 3.3.5)  

Atharva Ved 3.4 speaks for A benediction at the election of a king :

“ To you has come the kingship with its splendour. On! Shine as lord, sole ruler of the people. King! let all regions of the heavens invite you. Here let men wait on you and bow before you. “

(Atharva Ved 3.4.1)

“ The tribesmen shall elect you for the Kingship, these five celestial regions shall elect you. Rest on the height and top of kingly power: thence as a mighty man award us treasures. “  

(Atharva Ved 3.4.2)

“ Pass to the tribes of men. O Indra, among Indras. You the Varunas has been found accordant. To his own place this one hath called you, saying, Let him adore the Deities and guide the clansmen. ”  

(Atharva Ved 3.4.6)   

Here the king has been addressed as ‘Indra’. The word ‘Indrendra’ means the best among kings.

“ The Bounteous Paths in several forms and places, all in accord, have given you room and comfort. Let all of these in concert call you here. Live your tenth decade here, a strong kind ruler. “  

(Atharva Ved 3.4.7)   

The above verse says that the king was elected by all and he should enjoy rulership for ten years. It is evident that the chosen king used to rule for a certain period.

Trade In Ved :  

समुद्रं न संचरणे सनिष्यवः | (Rig Ved 1.56.2) 

“Those who seek fortune should go to the Samudra (sea).”   

समुद्रं न संचरणे सनिष्यवो | (Rig Ved 4.55.6)  

“As if to win the sea”  

Both of these verses indicate maritime trade.  

Again we find :  

सुदासे दस्रा वसु बिभ्रता रथे पर्क्षो वहतमश्विना | 
रयिं समुद्रादुत वा दिवस पर्यस्मे धत्तं पुरुस्प्र्हम || 
(Rig Ved 1.47.6)

“O Mighty Ones, you gave Sudās abundant food, brought on your treasure-laden car; So now grant us the wealth which many desire, either from sky or from the sea.”

The above mantra signifies that the Ashwins brought wealth for king Sudas by travelling through sky and sea.   

In Rig Ved the words “Duta”, “Dutah”, “Dutam” and “Dutasya” occur in more than a hundred verses. It seems that like today’s foreign ministers, the representatives of these kings were send to different lands in ancient age .   

Tax System In Ved :  

The word ‘Habih’, ‘Balih’ occur in Ved which means Tax. The kings used to collect tax.   

स निरुध्या नहुषो यज्वो अग्निर्विशश्चक्रे बलिह्र्तः सहोभिः || 
(Rig Ved 7.6.5)  

“Mighty Agni, who with conquering strength subduing the tribes of Nahush made them bring their tributaries.”  

This verse implies that Agni compelled the tribes of king Nahush to pay tax to the king. The commentary of Sayanacharya also indicates the same.  

Another verse indicates that Indra forced his subjects to pay Tax :  

अथो तैन्द्रः केवलीर्विशो बलिह्र्तस करत || 
(Rig Ved 10.173.6)  

“And then may Indra make the clans bring tributaries unto you alone.”  

The commentary of Sayanacharya also supports this view.   

“ Unto you let your fellows come, calling (you); Agni shall go along as speedy messenger, let the wives, the sons, be friendly minded ; you mighty one shall see abundant tribute. “ 

(Atharva Ved 3.4.3)   

“ At one place Indra is exhorted to "portion thou this man (the king elect) in village, in horses, in kine ".  (Atharva Ved 4.22.27)

This suggests that the king by then had already had a regular share in the agricultural produce and cattle. 

In various other hymns of Atharvaveda, subjects are projected as bringer of tributes (bali) to king as all human beings are tribute bearers to deities.  (Atharva Ved. 11. 4.19, 10. 1. 20, 6. 117.1)  

Yad Rajano Bibhajanta Ishtapurtasya Shodasham Yamasyami Sabhasadah |
Abistasmath Pra Munchati Dattah Shitipath Svadha ||  
(Rig Ved)

This mantra suggests that the courtiers of king used to fix the amount of Tax. The king used to get the sixteenth part of the Ishtapurta Karya as well.

Two types of taxes were being collected depending on fertile or barren land. The corresponding Riks are :  

इमानि तरीणि विष्टपा तानीन्द्र वि रोहय | 
शिरस्ततस्योर्वरामादिदं म उपोदरे || 
असौ च या न उर्वरादिमां तन्वं मम | 
अथो ततस्य यच्छिरः सर्वा ता रोमशा कर्धि || 
(Rig Ved 8.91.6-7)   

Assembly-Council :  

The existence of Assembly or Council is found in Ved. 

सदसस पतिमद्भुतं परियमिन्द्रस्य काम्यम | 
सनिं मेधामयासिषम || 
(Rig Ved 1.18.6)

“ To the Assembly's wondrous Lord, to Indra's lovely Friend who gives Wisdom, have I drawn near in prayer. “

This “Sadaspati” was a friend of Indra. The assembly was conducted by him. It may be mentioned that decisions were taken by the council to subdue the enemies during war. Several mantras of Ved give a hint on this.  

The word विदथे occur in Rig ved 1.31.6. The word “Vidatheshu” also occurs in Rig Ved. Many take the meaning of these words as Assembly or Council.   

ATHARVA VED (7.12)
Rishi: Shaunaka

"May the Assembly and the Council, the two Daughters of Prajapati be in concord and Protect me! May every one I meet guide me; Fathers, may I speak finely in the meetings." (1)

"I know your name, O Assembly, "The Desired of Men" is the name you have; May all those who are your members agree with me in my opinion. " (2)

" Let me receive the brilliance and the wisdom of those seated here together; and among these people assembled here make me the most illustrious, Indra ! " (3)

"Whether your thoughts are turned away, or are bound fast here and here, I turn those thoughts of yours found; in me may your minds delight ." (4)

Polity And Governance In Atharva Ved : 

There are 28 hymns in this category. Atharva Ved indicates an advanced civilisation. Atharva Ved 3.4.2 declares that the king of the region should be elected by the people or their representatives vishah in an assembly :

"The tribesmen shall elect you for the Kingship, these five celestial regions shall elect you. Rest on the height and top of kingly power: thence as a mighty man award us treasures. "

Atharva Ved 12.1.56 describes the several types of organisations like 'grama', village or town, 'sabha', the general assembly, 'samiti' , council or smaller meeting 'sangrama' the meeting between the different villages or towns. There are references to assemblies in other hymns like Atharva Ved 7.12.

The Atharva Ved 6.64 calls for extended debates on all topics leading to a unanimous conclusion. This hymn of 3 verses (6.64) is same as Rig Ved 10.191.2-4. 

सं गछध्वं सं वदध्वं सं वो मनांसि जानताम | 
देवा भागं यथा पूर्वे संजानाना उपासते || 

"Join together; speak one word; Let your minds arrive at one knowledge Even as the ancient gods arriving at one knowledge." 

समानो मन्त्रः समितिः समानी समानं मनः सह चित्तमेषाम | 
समानं मन्त्रमभि मण्त्रये वः समानेन वोहविषा जुहोमि || 

"Common mantra have all these, A common gathering to union, They are together in one knowledge. I pronounce for you a common mantra. I do sacrifice for you with a common offering." 

समानी व आकूतिः समाना हर्दयानि वः | 
समानमस्तु वोमनो यथा वः सुसहासति || 

"One and common be your aspiration, United your hearts, Common to you be your friend –so close companionship may be yours."

Sri Aurobindo in his book “The ideal of human unity” regards the verse as the earliest instance of the human aspiration for a global society in which all disputes can be settled harmoniously in a manner satisfactory to all parties. The meeting should end with a unanimous resolution.

Knowledge Of All :

"All were called upon to invoke the Divine Word which will give the right intuition in solving problems. Step beyond what is human, elect for the Divine Word, and establish your leadership, along with all the friends you have." 

........ Atharva Ved 7.105

"The teacher wanted to spread the wisdom among all persons. There was no attempt at keeping the people ignorant. Ashvins, Lords of light, fill me with the sweetness of the bee-honey,so may I speak the glorious Word to the masses of the people. "

........ Atharva Ved 6.69

"Om Shanti Shanti Shanti"
Happy Republic Day 
Polity And Governance In Ved

Swaraj-Freedom :

There are forty-nine Riks about Swaraj in the Rig Ved Samhita. The word “Swarajah” occurs in seven mantras, “Swarajam” in four mantras, “Swaraje” in three mantras, “Swarajyam” in sixteen mantras, “Swarajye” in one mantra and “Swarat” in five mantras.

आ वामश्वासः शुचयः पयस्पा वातरंहसो दिव्यासो अत्याः |
मनोजुवो वर्षणो वीतप्र्ष्ठा एह सवराजो अश्विनावहन्तु ||
(Rig Ved 1.181.2)


In this mantra the phrase “सवराजो अश्विनावहन्तु” indicates : O Ashwins ! Let Swaraj bring you here i.e. may Swaraj be established and coming here you become ruler of Swaraj.

तं घेमित्था नमस्विन उप सवराजमासते |
(Rig Ved 1.36.7)

“To him in his own Swaraj draw near in worship the devout.” i.e. after being united may the chief men serve (rule) the Swaraj devotedly.

इदं नमो वर्षभाय सवराजे सत्यशुष्माय तवसे.अवाचि |
अस्मिन्निन्द्र वर्जने सर्ववीराः समत सूरिभिस्तव शर्मन सयाम ||
(Rig Ved 1.51.15)

“To him the Mighty One, the self-resplendent, verily strong and great, this praise is uttered. May we and all the heroes, with the princes, be, in this fray, O Indra, in thy keeping.”

This hymn is being recited against the fear of external enemies in the absence of a king. Here the word “सवराजे” signifies the ruler of Swaraj, the self-resplendent Indra.

सवराळ इन्द्रो दम आ विश्वगूर्तः सवरिरमत्रो ववक्षे रणाय ||
(Rig Ved 1.61.9)

“Indra, approved by all men, self-resplendent, waxed in his home, loud-voiced and strong for battle.”

He who has become the ruler of Swaraj after winning the battle by vanquishing enemies come to be known as “svarāḷ indro”.

Democracy In Ved :

There is evidence in Vedas that in Vedic age the king was elected by the people. The concept of Democracy is found in the Samhitas.

आ तवाहार्षमन्तरेधि धरुवस्तिष्ठाविचाचलिः |
विशस्त्वा सर्वा वाञ्छन्तु मा तवद राष्ट्रमधि भरशत ||
इहैवैधि माप चयोष्ठाः पर्वत इवाविचाचलिः |
इन्द्रैवेह धरुवस्तिष्ठेह राष्ट्रमु धारय ||
(Rig Ved 10.173.1-2, Atharva Ved 6.87.1-2)

“Be with us; I have chosen you: stand stedfast and immovable. Let all the people wish for you, let not your kingship fall away. Be even here; fall not away, be like a mountain unremoved. Stand stedfast here like Indra's self, and hold the kingship in the grasp.”

The word “विशस्त्वा सर्वा वाञ्छन्तु” signifies that : We have chosen you as our king. The subjects recite this mantra while choosing their king.

Such mantras are found in Atharva Ved Samhita too. Atharva Ved 3.3.5 mentions the charm for restoration of an expelled king.

“Let your opponents call you back. Your friends have chosen you again. Indra and Agni, all the Deities have kept your home amid the tribe.”

(Atharva Ved 3.3.5)

Atharva Ved 3.4 speaks for A benediction at the election of a king :

“ To you has come the kingship with its splendour. On! Shine as lord, sole ruler of the people. King! let all regions of the heavens invite you. Here let men wait on you and bow before you. “

(Atharva Ved 3.4.1)

“ The tribesmen shall elect you for the Kingship, these five celestial regions shall elect you. Rest on the height and top of kingly power: thence as a mighty man award us treasures. “

(Atharva Ved 3.4.2)

“ Pass to the tribes of men. O Indra, among Indras. You the Varunas has been found accordant. To his own place this one hath called you, saying, Let him adore the Deities and guide the clansmen. ”

(Atharva Ved 3.4.6)

Here the king has been addressed as ‘Indra’. The word ‘Indrendra’ means the best among kings.

“ The Bounteous Paths in several forms and places, all in accord, have given you room and comfort. Let all of these in concert call you here. Live your tenth decade here, a strong kind ruler. “

(Atharva Ved 3.4.7)

The above verse says that the king was elected by all and he should enjoy rulership for ten years. It is evident that the chosen king used to rule for a certain period.

Trade In Ved :

समुद्रं न संचरणे सनिष्यवः | (Rig Ved 1.56.2)

“Those who seek fortune should go to the Samudra (sea).”

समुद्रं न संचरणे सनिष्यवो | (Rig Ved 4.55.6)

“As if to win the sea”

Both of these verses indicate maritime trade.

Again we find :

सुदासे दस्रा वसु बिभ्रता रथे पर्क्षो वहतमश्विना |
रयिं समुद्रादुत वा दिवस पर्यस्मे धत्तं पुरुस्प्र्हम ||
(Rig Ved 1.47.6)

“O Mighty Ones, you gave Sudās abundant food, brought on your treasure-laden car; So now grant us the wealth which many desire, either from sky or from the sea.”

The above mantra signifies that the Ashwins brought wealth for king Sudas by travelling through sky and sea.

In Rig Ved the words “Duta”, “Dutah”, “Dutam” and “Dutasya” occur in more than a hundred verses. It seems that like today’s foreign ministers, the representatives of these kings were send to different lands in ancient age .

Tax System In Ved :

The word ‘Habih’, ‘Balih’ occur in Ved which means Tax. The kings used to collect tax.

स निरुध्या नहुषो यज्वो अग्निर्विशश्चक्रे बलिह्र्तः सहोभिः ||
(Rig Ved 7.6.5)

“Mighty Agni, who with conquering strength subduing the tribes of Nahush made them bring their tributaries.”

This verse implies that Agni compelled the tribes of king Nahush to pay tax to the king. The commentary of Sayanacharya also indicates the same.

Another verse indicates that Indra forced his subjects to pay Tax :

अथो तैन्द्रः केवलीर्विशो बलिह्र्तस करत ||
(Rig Ved 10.173.6)

“And then may Indra make the clans bring tributaries unto you alone.”

The commentary of Sayanacharya also supports this view.

“ Unto you let your fellows come, calling (you); Agni shall go along as speedy messenger, let the wives, the sons, be friendly minded ; you mighty one shall see abundant tribute. “

(Atharva Ved 3.4.3)

“ At one place Indra is exhorted to "portion thou this man (the king elect) in village, in horses, in kine ". (Atharva Ved 4.22.27)

This suggests that the king by then had already had a regular share in the agricultural produce and cattle.

In various other hymns of Atharvaveda, subjects are projected as bringer of tributes (bali) to king as all human beings are tribute bearers to deities. (Atharva Ved. 11. 4.19, 10. 1. 20, 6. 117.1)

Yad Rajano Bibhajanta Ishtapurtasya Shodasham Yamasyami Sabhasadah |
Abistasmath Pra Munchati Dattah Shitipath Svadha ||
(Rig Ved)

This mantra suggests that the courtiers of king used to fix the amount of Tax. The king used to get the sixteenth part of the Ishtapurta Karya as well.

Two types of taxes were being collected depending on fertile or barren land. The corresponding Riks are :

इमानि तरीणि विष्टपा तानीन्द्र वि रोहय |
शिरस्ततस्योर्वरामादिदं म उपोदरे ||
असौ च या न उर्वरादिमां तन्वं मम |
अथो ततस्य यच्छिरः सर्वा ता रोमशा कर्धि ||
(Rig Ved 8.91.6-7)

Assembly-Council :

The existence of Assembly or Council is found in Ved.

सदसस पतिमद्भुतं परियमिन्द्रस्य काम्यम |
सनिं मेधामयासिषम ||
(Rig Ved 1.18.6)

“ To the Assembly's wondrous Lord, to Indra's lovely Friend who gives Wisdom, have I drawn near in prayer. “

This “Sadaspati” was a friend of Indra. The assembly was conducted by him. It may be mentioned that decisions were taken by the council to subdue the enemies during war. Several mantras of Ved give a hint on this.

The word विदथे occur in Rig ved 1.31.6. The word “Vidatheshu” also occurs in Rig Ved. Many take the meaning of these words as Assembly or Council.

ATHARVA VED (7.12)
Rishi: Shaunaka

"May the Assembly and the Council, the two Daughters of Prajapati be in concord and Protect me! May every one I meet guide me; Fathers, may I speak finely in the meetings." (1)

"I know your name, O Assembly, "The Desired of Men" is the name you have; May all those who are your members agree with me in my opinion. " (2)

" Let me receive the brilliance and the wisdom of those seated here together; and among these people assembled here make me the most illustrious, Indra ! " (3)

"Whether your thoughts are turned away, or are bound fast here and here, I turn those thoughts of yours found; in me may your minds delight ." (4)

Polity And Governance In Atharva Ved :

There are 28 hymns in this category. Atharva Ved indicates an advanced civilisation. Atharva Ved 3.4.2 declares that the king of the region should be elected by the people or their representatives vishah in an assembly :

"The tribesmen shall elect you for the Kingship, these five celestial regions shall elect you. Rest on the height and top of kingly power: thence as a mighty man award us treasures. "

Atharva Ved 12.1.56 describes the several types of organisations like 'grama', village or town, 'sabha', the general assembly, 'samiti' , council or smaller meeting 'sangrama' the meeting between the different villages or towns. There are references to assemblies in other hymns like Atharva Ved 7.12.

The Atharva Ved 6.64 calls for extended debates on all topics leading to a unanimous conclusion. This hymn of 3 verses (6.64) is same as Rig Ved 10.191.2-4.

सं गछध्वं सं वदध्वं सं वो मनांसि जानताम |
देवा भागं यथा पूर्वे संजानाना उपासते ||

"Join together; speak one word; Let your minds arrive at one knowledge Even as the ancient gods arriving at one knowledge."

समानो मन्त्रः समितिः समानी समानं मनः सह चित्तमेषाम |
समानं मन्त्रमभि मण्त्रये वः समानेन वोहविषा जुहोमि ||

"Common mantra have all these, A common gathering to union, They are together in one knowledge. I pronounce for you a common mantra. I do sacrifice for you with a common offering."

समानी व आकूतिः समाना हर्दयानि वः |
समानमस्तु वोमनो यथा वः सुसहासति ||

"One and common be your aspiration, United your hearts, Common to you be your friend –so close companionship may be yours."

Sri Aurobindo in his book “The ideal of human unity” regards the verse as the earliest instance of the human aspiration for a global society in which all disputes can be settled harmoniously in a manner satisfactory to all parties. The meeting should end with a unanimous resolution.

Knowledge Of All :

"All were called upon to invoke the Divine Word which will give the right intuition in solving problems. Step beyond what is human, elect for the Divine Word, and establish your leadership, along with all the friends you have."

........ Atharva Ved 7.105

"The teacher wanted to spread the wisdom among all persons. There was no attempt at keeping the people ignorant. Ashvins, Lords of light, fill me with the sweetness of the bee-honey,so may I speak the glorious Word to the masses of the people. "

........ Atharva Ved 6.69